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Table 1 Summary of reforms of focus and methodological approach in country case studies

From: Promoting universal financial protection: evidence from seven low- and middle-income countries on factors facilitating or hindering progress

Country Reforms of focus Methodological approach
Costa Rica • Phased extension since 1940 of mandatory insurance coverage, through the social security fund (Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social: CCSS), to the entire population, beginning with formal-sector employees in urban areas, then to rural employees, and then to the self-employed and the poor (with government paying the contribution for the poor from tax funds) • Qualitative study using document reviews, key-informant interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs)
• Historical lens applied
• Used actor mapping framework
• Used policy analysis triangle framework
• Bringing hospitals under the control of the mandatory insurance scheme and improving primary health care services  
Georgia • Providing insurance coverage for the poor, using government funds to pay private health insurance scheme contributions (Medical Insurance for the Poor (MIP) program) • Mixed methods: analysis of secondary national household survey data and primary qualitative data collection and analysis (key-informant interviews and FGDs)
India • Providing insurance coverage for the poor, using government funds to pay contributions to health insurance schemes (public or private) (Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana: RSBY initiative) • Mixed methods: household survey of beneficiary households; and key-informant interviews and FGDs
Malawi • Contracting (establishing Service Level Agreements - SLAs) with faith-based providers to provide health services free of charge to vulnerable populations, particularly for maternal and neonatal services • Case study design (facility-based SLA as the unit of analysis)
• Mixed methods: exit survey and key-informant interviews
Nigeria • Efforts to extend coverage of the National Health Insurance Scheme from the initial target membership of Federal civil servants to State civil servants • Case study design (state as the unit of analysis)
• Qualitative study using document review and key-informant interviews
Tanzania • Transfer of management of district level community-based voluntary health insurance schemes (Community Health Fund: CHF) to the National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF), a mandatory scheme initially established for civil servants but now open to other formal-sector workers • Case study design (district as the unit of analysis)
• Mixed methods: key-informant interviews and focus group discussions; review of facility financial and utilisation records
Thailand • Phased extension of mandatory insurance coverage to entire population • Case study design (policy design feature as the unit of analysis)
• Qualitative study using key-informant interviews and document reviews
• Used policy analysis triangle framework
• Used policy network approach