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Table 1 Key documents identified by the literature review, focusing on elements and propositions relevant for the assessment of transnational CoPs in health policy

From: Assessing communities of practice in health policy: a conceptual framework as a first step towards empirical research

Authors Year of publication Reference Sector of reference Main dimension of focus Key elements, findings and propositions
Schenkel et al. 2000 [26] Management Performance of CoPs Social network analysis.
McDermott 2002 [27] Business Return On Investment (ROI) Pyramidal framework, which starts from ‘activities’ at the base and moves upwards to ‘outputs’, ‘value’ and ‘business results’.
Wenger et al. 2002 [5] Business/Management ROI Simple method for calculating an approximate ROI value.
Arora et al. 2002 [28] Business Performance of CoPs/ROI Balanced scorecards.
Millen & Fontaine 2003 [29] Business Performance of CoPs/ROI Causal model for community interactions and benefits, which categorizes benefits into ‘individual/personal’, ‘community’ and ‘organizational’.
Lee et al. 2005 [30] Business/Management KM performance/ROI Complex, formalized method to calculate ROI for KM activities.
Helms et al. 2007 [31] Management Performance of CoPs/ROI Knowledge network analysis.
Scarso et al. 2009 [24] Business/Management Success factors/ROI Identifies two external influences (the organization’s own knowledge strategy and the context) and four internal/constitution characteristics of CoPs (organizational, cognitive, economic and technological dimensions) to explain the CoPs success (applied to the case of a multinational oil company).
Braithwaite et al. 2009 [32] Health Performance of CoPs Protocol presenting a methodology for the “development, design, testing, refinement, simulation and application of an evaluation framework for communities of practice and social-professional networks”.
Wenger et al. 2011 [33] Education Assessing ‘value creation’ A very detailed, comprehensive guide for promoting and assessing ‘value creation’ (a performance measure of the level of learning enabled) for CoPs and networks in the education sector. Includes a conceptual framework and practical methods and tools.
Ranmuthugala et al. 2011 [34] Health Performance/role of CoPs A second study protocol (following Braithwaite et al. 2009) proposing ‘realist evaluation’ combined with ‘social network analysis’ as a tool for the development of such a framework. Both protocols focus mainly on the application of CoPs to healthcare activities, specifically in Australia.
ADB 2011 [35] Development Evaluation of KM strategies Use of the DAC Criteria for Evaluating Development Assistance as a tool for assessing KM strategies. The DAC criteria are relevance, effectiveness, efficacy, sustainability and impact.
LeBaron 2000 [36] Education Limitation of CoPs Cultural and social values of collaboration vs. individual success.
Yanow 2004 [37] Management Limitations of CoPs/Hierarchies Role of local vs. expert knowledge; distinction between horizontal, geographic periphery and a vertical, hierarchical periphery.
Roberts 2006 [38] Management Limitation of CoPs Power structures and hierarchies; time needed to evolve and mature; resistance to change.
Kerno 2008 [39] Management Limitation of CoPs Time constraints; organizational hierarchies; regional culture.
Johnson 2001 [40] Education Early research on virtual CoPs’ characteristics Different levels of expertise; fluidity of knowledge flows (vs. withdrawal/attrition); community knowledge greater than individual knowledge; environment of safety and trust.
Sveiby & Simons 2002 [41] Management Trust Collaborative climate is one of the major factors influencing effectiveness of knowledge management.
Levin et al. 2004 [42] Management Trust Trust as essential for knowledge sharing.
Wenger et al. 2005 [43] Management Use of ICT Contribution of technologies to CoPs; new tools and challenges in the use of ICT; description of technologies the CoPs use to “create a sense of togetherness over time and across distances”.
Bourhis et al. 2005 [25] Management Leadership Role of the community leaders and coach to respond to challenges in a way adapted to the CoP characteristics (presenting empirical case studies).
Cargill 2006 [44] Management Leadership Role of leaders and leadership issues.
Ardichvili et al. 2006 [45] Management Culture Cultural influences and potential cultural barriers in knowledge sharing and participation.
Usoro et al. 2007 [46] Management Trust Trust as predictor of knowledge sharing behaviours. Trust is analysed across three dimensions: perceived competence, integrity and benevolence of the CoP.
Kraut & Resnick 2011 [47] Management Use of ICT Possible designs improving the success of online communities.