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Table 1 Key documents identified by the literature review, focusing on elements and propositions relevant for the assessment of transnational CoPs in health policy

From: Assessing communities of practice in health policy: a conceptual framework as a first step towards empirical research

Authors Year of publication Reference Sector of reference Main dimension of focus Key elements, findings and propositions
  FRAMEWORKS FOR ASSESSING CoPs’ PERFORMANCE
Schenkel et al. 2000 [26] Management Performance of CoPs Social network analysis.
McDermott 2002 [27] Business Return On Investment (ROI) Pyramidal framework, which starts from ‘activities’ at the base and moves upwards to ‘outputs’, ‘value’ and ‘business results’.
Wenger et al. 2002 [5] Business/Management ROI Simple method for calculating an approximate ROI value.
Arora et al. 2002 [28] Business Performance of CoPs/ROI Balanced scorecards.
Millen & Fontaine 2003 [29] Business Performance of CoPs/ROI Causal model for community interactions and benefits, which categorizes benefits into ‘individual/personal’, ‘community’ and ‘organizational’.
Lee et al. 2005 [30] Business/Management KM performance/ROI Complex, formalized method to calculate ROI for KM activities.
Helms et al. 2007 [31] Management Performance of CoPs/ROI Knowledge network analysis.
Scarso et al. 2009 [24] Business/Management Success factors/ROI Identifies two external influences (the organization’s own knowledge strategy and the context) and four internal/constitution characteristics of CoPs (organizational, cognitive, economic and technological dimensions) to explain the CoPs success (applied to the case of a multinational oil company).
Braithwaite et al. 2009 [32] Health Performance of CoPs Protocol presenting a methodology for the “development, design, testing, refinement, simulation and application of an evaluation framework for communities of practice and social-professional networks”.
Wenger et al. 2011 [33] Education Assessing ‘value creation’ A very detailed, comprehensive guide for promoting and assessing ‘value creation’ (a performance measure of the level of learning enabled) for CoPs and networks in the education sector. Includes a conceptual framework and practical methods and tools.
Ranmuthugala et al. 2011 [34] Health Performance/role of CoPs A second study protocol (following Braithwaite et al. 2009) proposing ‘realist evaluation’ combined with ‘social network analysis’ as a tool for the development of such a framework. Both protocols focus mainly on the application of CoPs to healthcare activities, specifically in Australia.
ADB 2011 [35] Development Evaluation of KM strategies Use of the DAC Criteria for Evaluating Development Assistance as a tool for assessing KM strategies. The DAC criteria are relevance, effectiveness, efficacy, sustainability and impact.
  LIMITATIONS OF CoPS
LeBaron 2000 [36] Education Limitation of CoPs Cultural and social values of collaboration vs. individual success.
Yanow 2004 [37] Management Limitations of CoPs/Hierarchies Role of local vs. expert knowledge; distinction between horizontal, geographic periphery and a vertical, hierarchical periphery.
Roberts 2006 [38] Management Limitation of CoPs Power structures and hierarchies; time needed to evolve and mature; resistance to change.
Kerno 2008 [39] Management Limitation of CoPs Time constraints; organizational hierarchies; regional culture.
  ELEMENTS FOR THE SUCCESS OF CoPs
Johnson 2001 [40] Education Early research on virtual CoPs’ characteristics Different levels of expertise; fluidity of knowledge flows (vs. withdrawal/attrition); community knowledge greater than individual knowledge; environment of safety and trust.
Sveiby & Simons 2002 [41] Management Trust Collaborative climate is one of the major factors influencing effectiveness of knowledge management.
Levin et al. 2004 [42] Management Trust Trust as essential for knowledge sharing.
Wenger et al. 2005 [43] Management Use of ICT Contribution of technologies to CoPs; new tools and challenges in the use of ICT; description of technologies the CoPs use to “create a sense of togetherness over time and across distances”.
Bourhis et al. 2005 [25] Management Leadership Role of the community leaders and coach to respond to challenges in a way adapted to the CoP characteristics (presenting empirical case studies).
Cargill 2006 [44] Management Leadership Role of leaders and leadership issues.
Ardichvili et al. 2006 [45] Management Culture Cultural influences and potential cultural barriers in knowledge sharing and participation.
Usoro et al. 2007 [46] Management Trust Trust as predictor of knowledge sharing behaviours. Trust is analysed across three dimensions: perceived competence, integrity and benevolence of the CoP.
Kraut & Resnick 2011 [47] Management Use of ICT Possible designs improving the success of online communities.