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Table 4 Potential pathways to change: indicators of outputs and outcomes linked to activities primarily at the national-international level

From: Indicators for tracking programmes to strengthen health research capacity in lower- and middle-income countries: a qualitative synthesis

Engagement and communication activities for research uptake: Engagement with private and non-health organisations, NGOs, HIV programmes, research institutions, health ministries, regulatory authorities. Using journals, press, magazines, conferences/workshops, networks, face-to-face interaction, websites, consensus reports, policy briefs, newsletters.
Outputs Outcomes
Skills development program from public-private-academic partnerships. Advocacy resulted in enhanced health RCS effort, or enhanced knowledge about neglected topic diseases (e.g., fish-borne zoonotic parasites).
Systematic plan for acquiring and using research information, and for sharing and transferring knowledge.
Knowledge about focus of health RCS efforts – tend to be more on researchers and less on research users.
Media articles (i.e., press, magazines, reports, website). Partnerships for research dialogue (e.g., with policymakers, research users, decision makers national authorities, professional groups, private sector, NGOs, civil society) at local, regional, and international levels.
Communication/knowledge management strategy
Trends in website hits.
Activities to develop national health research systems or scientific councils: Promote financial sustainability in regional research activities.
Outputs Outcomes
Map of national research system. Strong commitment and active engagement by national health research institutions and health ministries to review progress and determine research priorities.
Knowledge about contribution (or not) of national agencies to development of effective national health research system and in creating demand for research.
External funds provided more accessibility and flexibility than local funds.
Networking activities for researchers and/or research users: Facilitation of collaborations and large-scale networks, sometimes through multi-disciplinary workshops, curricula, meetings, and seminars.
Outputs Outcomes
New programme and partnership for research to strengthen links between universities and policy making (e.g., systematic reviews for research). Impact on policy, practice, and knowledge at different levels (i.e., international, regional, national, district level) and on health and non-health sectors, through research and policy networks.
Project staff contributed to evaluations of health centres and systems and to motivating medical staff. Estimated impact on disease control and prevention.
Harmonised regional research activities.
North–South and South–South networking activities.
Active committees with institutional representation in each member country.
Commitment and communication with the Northern and among Southern partners.