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Table 4 Summary ranking scores for current policies, desired policies, current research, and desired research

From: Stakeholders’ perspectives on access-to-medicines policy and research priorities in Latin America and the Caribbean: face-to-face and web-based interviews

Item codes* WHO Framework domain Current policies Desired policies Current research Desired research
Items (policy or research topics)
  Rational Selection and Use of Medicines     
1f Clinical treatment guidelines, and essential medicines list: development; incentives for implementation; operational mechanisms; standardization (including between private and public sectors) 17.7 12.4 9.8 9.8
1i Pharmacovigilance, information on adverse drug reaction, and other problems related to medicines 10.1 8.0 6.9 7.6
1e Staff capacity for rational prescription and use of medicines; training curriculum 7.1 11.5 3.0 9.3
1d Impact of advertisements on medicines; incentives (or lack of, leading to private or dual practice); medicines becoming a source in financing for health services 3.3 7.3 5.1 7.0
  Pricing/Affordability     
2g Policy and regulation for medicines price 11.4 10.9 5.7 9.4
2f Impact of prices on access 8.2 8.0 8.3 11.0
2a High out-of-pocket payment 7.6 9.1 5.3 8.8
2l Budget allocation to health 9.4 6.0 4.6 4.3
2i Patents and intellectual property issues 6.4 3.9 7.1 5.6
  Reliable Health System/Health System Structure     
3j Availability of medicines (especially in public sector) 8.8 6.3 8.3 7.2
3a Geographical accessibility: physical barriers; distance to facilities; remoteness (combination of physical barriers and infrastructure weakness) 10.2 8.8 3.9 6.6
3k Quality assurance 6.8 6.8 4.0 8.6
3b Distribution systems and supply chains 8.5 7.9 3.9 5.3
3f Staff and technical capacity: for supply management; with managerial, interpersonal and information technology (IT) skills, with local language skills (English) 5.1 6.8 1.8 5.3
3c Pharmaceutical services at local level 4.7 4.3 4.0 2.4
  Sustainable Financing     
4m Budget allocation to health 10.7 10.7 7.2 8.7
4e Health insurance coverage and models 9.4 10.7 7.4 8.9
4f Government budgets for medicines 10.8 11.0 5.4 7.8
4h Cost containment policies 6.9 9.1 5.1 10.4
  1. *Item codes reflect the order in which they appear in the questionnaire. Top three summary scores in each domain marked in bold numbers.
  2. Source: Authors.