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Table 1 Questions addressed within each of these five functional components of a data management system needed to ensure data quality *

From: Improving the quality of health information: a qualitative assessment of data management and reporting systems in Botswana

Five functional components of a data management and reporting system Questions
M&E structures, functions, and capabilities • Are key M&E and data management staff identified with clearly assigned responsibilities?
• Have the majority of key M&E and data management staff received the required training?
Indicator definitions and reporting guidelines • Are the operational indicator definitions meeting relevant standards that are systematically followed by all service points?
• Has the program/project clearly documented (in writing) what is reported to who, and how and when reporting is required?
Data collection and reporting forms and tools • Are there standard data-collection and reporting forms that are systematically used?
• Is data recorded with sufficient precision/detail to measure relevant indicators?
• Are data maintained in accordance with international or national confidentiality guidelines?
• Are source documents kept and made available in accordance with a written policy?
Data management processes • Does clear documentation of collection, aggregation, and manipulation steps exist?
  • Are data quality challenges identified and are mechanisms in place for addressing them?
  • Are there clearly defined and followed procedures to identify and reconcile discrepancies in reports?
  • Are there clearly defined and followed procedures to periodically verify source data?
Links with the national reporting system • Does the data collection and reporting system of the program/project link with the National reporting system?
  1. *Based on the Data Quality Audit Tool[6].