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Table 1 Seven Informative Learning Organization Frameworks and Their Key Concepts

From: Evidence in the learning organization

  Learning Process: Who creates the knowledge? Knowledge is validated through: Organizational model: How evidence fits into each framework?
Organizational Learning[42, 44] Loop Learning and the "4i" Individual to Organization Applying a Work Strategy or Process Individuals as Agents for Organizational Inquiry Evidence as External Strategy To Consider
Decision-Execution Cycles[45] Testing Knowledge Gaps During Work Individual to Organization Knowledge Claims Tested Through Decisions Knowledge Formed in Minds & Information Systems External Knowledge Claim To Be Tested
Organizational Knowledge Creation[46] Team Discourse: Making Tacit Knowledge Explicit Individual and Team; then to Organization Negotiated Understanding of Decisions in Action Social Network of Relating Teams External Knowledge To Be Justified by Working Teams
Organizational Culture[5256] Cultural Change Processes & Assimilation Organization & Organizational Subcultures Negotiated, Shared Beliefs of Organizations & Subcultures Vocational Society and Subcultures Evidence as Data to Confirm/Disconfirm Beliefs
Complex Adaptive Systems[5761] Decentralized Decision-making with Rules & Policies Not Stated or Implied Not Stated or Implied Complex System (of Providers & Patients) Evidence as New Policy or Practice
Diffusion & Dissemination of Innovation[37, 62] Diffusion or Active Dissemination Strategies Not Stated or Implied Adoption of Practice Innovations System of Adopters with Variable Readiness for Change Innovative Concept or Practice to be Adopted
Total Quality Management (TQM)[24, 33] Redesign of Individual Work Processes Leaders & Practitioners Practice Standard or Benchmark Attainment Mechanical System (of Linear Processes) External Benchmark or Standard Practice