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Table 4 Incidence of catastrophic and impoverishing health payment by all subgroups

From: Effect of household and village characteristics on financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health care spending in Western and Central Rural China: A multilevel analysis

Variables Households with catastrophic health payment (N = 3,319)
n (%)
P-value* Households impoverished by health payment (N = 3,077)Δ
N (%)
P-value
Village-level variables     
   Village deprivation (Quartile) <0.001   <0.001
Most deprived 109 (30.7)   68 (22.2)  
2nd 217(28.3)   142 (20.5)  
3rd 159 (15.3)   99 (9.9)  
Least deprived 130 (11.2)   59 (5.5)  
   Availability of a health post   0.866   0.109
No 223 (18.7)   146 (13.3)  
Yes 392 (18.4)   222 (11.2)  
   Location of village     
Mountainous 237 (28.0) <0.001 157 (20.7) <0.001
Plains 378 (15.3)   211 (9.1)  
   Household-level variables     
   Household per capita income (Quartile) <0.001   <0.001
Lowest 355 (42.9)   222 (36.2)  
2nd 165 (19.9)   106 (13.2)  
3rd 67 (8.1)   31 (3.8)  
Highest 26 (3.1)   8 (1.0)  
   NRCMS participation status 0.409   0.569
No 42 (16.4)   25 (10.6)  
Yes 573 (18.7)   343 (12.1)  
Proportion of members with
serious chronic illness
<0.001   <0.001
0 194 (8.5)   121 (5.6)  
≤0.5 289 (36.2)   177 (24.8)  
>0.5 132 (57.9)   70 (37.8)  
   Hospitalized members <0.001   <0.001
No 365 (13.3)   216 (8.4)  
Yes 250 (44.2)   152 (29.7)  
   Household size   0.004   0.123
≤3 393 (20.0)   210 (11.7)  
4-6 212 (16.0)   151 (12.0)  
>6 10 (29.4)   7 (24.1)  
   Proportion of members aged over 65 <0.001   <0.001
0 350 (13.7)   221 (9.1)  
≤0.5 148 (28.1)   91 (19.3)  
>0.5 117 (49.6)   55 (33.7)  
   Occupation of household head <0.001   <0.001
Farmer 483 (17.0)   303 (11.4)  
Non-farmer 22 (7.9)   10 (3.7)  
Unemployed 110 (57.3)   55 (41.0)  
  1. Δ Number of non-poor households before health payment; * Chi-square test of association