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Table 5 Determinants of catastrophic health payment

From: Effect of household and village characteristics on financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health care spending in Western and Central Rural China: A multilevel analysis

Variables Univariate analysis Logistic regression Mixed effected
logistic regression
  Crude OR
(95% CI)
P-valueΔ Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
P-valueΔ Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
P-value**
Village-level variables       
Village deprivation (Quartile)   <0.001*   <0.001*   <0.001*
2nd vs. Lowest deprived 0.89 (0.68-1.17)   1.24 (0.83-1.85)   1.19 (0.73-1.96)  
3rd vs. Lowest deprived 0.41 (0.31-0.54)   0.67 (0.45-0.99)   0.64 (0.40-1.04)  
Highest vs. Lowest deprived 0.28 (0.21-0.38)   0.41 (0.27-0.62)   0.39 (0.24-0.64)  
Availability of health clinic   0.866   0.34   0.291
Yes vs. No 0.98 (0.81-1.17)   1.14 (0.87-1.5)   1.21 (0.85-1.70)  
Household-level variables       
Household per capita income (Quartile)   <0.001*   <0.001*   <0.001*
2nd vs. Lowest 0.33 (0.27-0.41)   0.34 (0.26-0.45)   0.33 (0.25-0.44)  
3rd vs. Lowest 0.12 (0.09-0.16)   0.12 (0.09-0.17)   0.12 (0.08-0.16)  
Highest vs. Lowest 0.04 (0.03-0.07)   0.04 (0.02-0.06)   0.04 (0.02-0.06)  
Serious chronic illness proportion   <0.001*   <0.001*   <0.001*
≤0.5 vs.0 6.15 (5.01-7.57)   4.11 (3.2-5.29)   4.19 (3.24-5.42)  
>0.5 vs.0 14.93 (11.04-20.18)   8.71 (5.99-12.68)   8.99(6.11-13.22)  
Member hospitalization   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001
Yes vs. No 5.12 (4.2-6.25)   5.68 (4.33-7.46)   5.79 (4.39-7.63)  
Household size   <0.001*   0.002*   0.003*
4-6 vs. ≤3 0.76 (0.63-0.91)   0.63 (0.49-0.82)   0.64 (0.49-0.83)  
>6 vs. ≤3 1.66 (0.79-3.51)   0.57 (0.22-1.47)   0.54 (0.20-1.43)  
Proportion of members aged over 65   <0.001*   <0.001*   <0.001*
≤0.5 vs.0 2.45 (1.96-3.05)   1.41 (1.05-1.89)   1.44 (1.06-1.94)  
>0.5 vs.0 6.13 (4.64-8.11)   2.48 (1.67-3.7)   2.62 (1.74-3.94)  
Occupation of household head   <0.001   0.008   0.013
Non-farmer vs. Farmer 0.42 (0.27-0.65)   0.76 (0.45-1.27)   0.75 (0.44-1.28)  
Unemployed vs. Farmer 6.51 (4.81-8.81)   1.81 (1.2-2.73)   1.77 (1.16-2.70)  
Intraclass correlation(ICC)       0.05
  1. * P-value for trend test was <0.05; Δ Likelihood ratio test; ** ANOVA test