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Table 6 Determinants of impoverishing health payment

From: Effect of household and village characteristics on financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health care spending in Western and Central Rural China: A multilevel analysis

Variables Univariate analysis Logistic regression Mixed effected
logistic regression
  Crude OR
(95% CI)
P-valueΔ Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
P-valueΔ Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
P-value**
Village-level variables       
Village deprivation(Quartile)   <0.001*   <0.001*   <0.001*
2nd vs. Lowest deprived 0.9 (0.65-1.25)   1.77 (1.11-2.83)   1.58(0.87-2.86)  
3rd vs. Lowest deprived 0.39 (0.27-0.54)   0.83 (0.52-1.33)   0.81(0.45-1.43)  
Highest vs. Lowest deprived 0.2 (0.14-0.29)   0.39 (0.23-0.64)   0.36(0.20-0.66)  
Availability of health clinic   0.109   0.722   0.7647
Yes vs. No 0.83 (0.66-1.03)   0.94 (0.68-1.3)   1.06(0.70-1.63)  
Household-level variables       
Household per capita income (Quartile)   <0.001*   <0.001*   <0.001*
2nd vs. Lowest 0.27 (0.21-0.35)   0.25 (0.18-0.35)   0.25(0.18-0.34)  
3rd vs. Lowest 0.07 (0.05-0.1)   0.07 (0.04-0.1)   0.06(0.04-0.10)  
Highest vs. Lowest 0.02 (0.01-0.04)   0.02 (0.01-0.03)   0.02(0.00-0.03)  
Serious chronic illness proportion   <0.001*   <0.001*   <0.001*
≤0.5 vs.0 5.57 (4.34-7.16)   3.82 (2.81-5.18)   3.88(2.84-5.32)  
>0.5 vs.0 10.33 (7.28-14.64)   6.26 (4-9.79)   6.72(4.23-10.67)  
Member hospitalization   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001
Yes vs. No 4.55 (3.6-5.76)   4.75 (3.44-6.54)   4.94(3.56-6.86)  
Household size   0.123   0.929   0.968
4-6 vs. ≤3 1.02 (0.82-1.28)   0.94 (0.69-1.28)   0.96 (0.70-1.32)  
>6 vs. ≤3 2.39 (1.01-5.67)   0.94 (0.31-2.81)   0.96 (0.31-3.00)  
Proportion of members aged over 65   <0.001*   <0.001*   <0.001*
≤0.5 vs.0 2.37 (1.81-3.1)   1.28 (0.9-1.82)   1.29(0.90-1.86)  
>0.5 vs.0 5.1 (3.59-7.24)   2.79 (1.69-4.6)   3.04(1.81-5.11)  
Occupation of household head   <0.001   0.014   0.013
Non-farmer vs. Farmer 0.3 (0.16-0.57)   0.47 (0.23-0.98)   0.46(0.22-0.97)  
Unemployed vs. Farmer 5.45 (3.78-7.84)   1.61 (0.97-2.68)   1.50(0.88-2.54)  
Intraclass correlation (ICC)       0.006
  1. * P-value for trend test was <0.05; Δ Likelihood ratio test; ** ANOVA test