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Table 2 Selected MAPEDIR-collected maternal death indicators

From: Maternal death inquiry and response in India - the impact of contextual factors on defining an optimal model to help meet critical maternal health policy objectives

  District, State
Maternal health indicator Dholpur, Rajasthan
N = 35
n (%) or median (range)
Guna/Shivpuri, Madhya Pradesh
N = 92
n (%) or median (range)
Purulia, West Bengal
N = 102
n (%) or median (range)
Type of death (Ab, AN, LD [> 24 hours post delivery]) 2, 6, 27 [14]
(5.7, 17.1, 77.1, [40.0])
2, 1, 89 [28]
(2.2, 1.0, 96.7 [30.4])
13 [7], 21, 68 [31]
(12.7, 20.6, 66.7 [30.4])
Cause of death (H, S, E, Ob, A, O, U)* 10, 7, 6, 2, 5, 4, 1
(28.6, 20.0, 17.1, 5.7, 14.3, 11.4, 2.9)
27, 8, 25, 7, 9, 11, 5
(29.3, 8.7, 27.2, 7.6, 9.8, 12.0, 5.4)
23, 4, 19, 1, 9, 13, 33
(22.5, 3.9, 18.6, 1.0, 8.8, 12.7, 32.4)
Infant outcome in LD deaths: IUFD, stillbirth, born alive and died, alive 1, 12, 4, 10
(3.7, 44.4, 14.8, 37.0)
3, 17, 49, 20
(3.4, 19.1, 55.1, 22.5)
9, 11, 15, 33
(13.2, 16.2, 22.1, 48.5)
Age in years 26 (16-40) 25 (15-49) 24 (15-35)
Caste (SC/ST) 17 (48.6) 51 (55.4) 61/100 (61.0)
Kutcha house 15 (42.9) 66/92 (71.7) 83 (81.4)
Below Poverty Line card holder 11 (31.4) 58/91 (63.7) 39/95 (41.1)
Years of schooling 0 (1-10) 0 (0-12) 0 (0-10)
Age in years at marriage 16 (7-20) 17 (12-24) 17 (11-24)
Skilled birth attendance (LD deaths) 14/27 (51.9) 58/89 (65.2) 27/60 (45.0)
Sought formal care for the fatal illness: never, not first, first 15, 7, 13
(42.9, 20.0, 37.1)
28, 9, 52
(31.5, 10.1, 58.4)
17, 38, 47
(16.6, 37.3, 46.1)
Delay 1--time (hours) to decide to seek care 2 (0-32) 1 (0-15) (N = 44) 4 (0-216)
Delay 2a--time (hours) to arrange to seek care 2 (1-5) (N = 11) 0.5 (0.1-24) (N = 78) 1.0 (0-12.0)
Delay 2b--transport time (hours) 0.5 (0.5-2.0) (N = 8) 1 (0.2-3.0) (N = 82) 0.5 (0-4.2)
Reasons for not seeking formal care or not seeking formal care first: (perception, cost/transport, other) (multiple responses allowed) 4, 5, 9
(22.2, 27.8, 50.0)
(18 reasons/18 women)
21, 19, 16
(37.5, 33.9, 28.6)
(56 reasons/37 women)
24, 22, 6
(46.2, 42.3, 11.5)
(52 reasons/34 women)
1st action decision maker: (W, H, O)
(% of all decision makers)
1, 9, 23
(3.0, 27.3, 69.7)
7, 41, 44
(7.6, 44.6, 47.8)
11, 68, 117
(5.6, 34.7, 59.7)
Referred from F1 to F2 11/17 (64.7) 42/61 (68.9) 48/67 (71.6)
Reasons for referral from F1 to F2 (complication, medicine, blood, procedure, specialist, equipment) (multiple responses allowed) 4, 1, 3, 0, 0, 3
(36.4, 9.0, 27.3, 0, 0, 27.3)
18, 14, 17, --, 23, 14
(20.9, 16.3, 19.8, --, 26.7, 16.3)
31, 6, 9, 23, 15, 8
(33.7, 6.5, 9.8, 25.0, 16.3, 8.7)
Out-of-pocket transport and treatment expenditure (rupees) at F1 and F2 1280 (150-13000)
2950 (350-11000)
300 (0-1500)
500 (0-3000)
800 (0-7100)
1860 (0-26500)
  1. Ab = abortion; AN = antenatal; LD = during or after labor and delivery; IUFD = intrauterine fetal death; SC/ST = scheduled castes and tribes; F1 and F2 = first and second formal health care facilities visited for the fatal illness.
  2. *H = hemorrhage, S = sepsis, E = eclampsia, Ob = obstructed labor, A = anemia, O = other, U = undetermined.
  3. W = the deceased woman, H = her husband, O = other.
  4. Multiple decision makers allowed.