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Table 2 Awareness of stakeholders about basic health economic principles; level of agreement with statements by country (scale responses: 1 = strongly disagree; 7 = strongly agree)

From: Similarities and differences between stakeholders’ opinions on using Health Technology Assessment (HTA) information across five European countries: results from the EQUIPT survey

  Netherlands Hungary Germany Spain United Kingdom Total Kruskal–Wallis test
Statements n Mean (SD) n Mean (SD) n Mean (SD) n Mean (SD) n Mean (SD) n Mean (SD) P value
‘Incremental costs’ means by how much the studied intervention itself costs more or less than the comparator intervention 28 4.79 (1.93) 10 6.60 (0.52) 13 5.62 (1.12) 16 6.25 (0.78) 14 3.71 (1.86) 81 5.25 (1.76) <10–3
When an intervention in itself is cheap, it is always cost-effective compared to another intervention 28 1.96 (1.40) 16 1.50 (1.42) 17 1.94 (1.75) 18 2.28 (2.02) 14 1.57 (0.76) 93 1.88 (1.53) 0.35
‘Willingness to pay’ means how much a society is willing to pay for a quality-adjusted life year 28 4.86 (1.88) 11 4.45 (2.07) 14 3.71 (1.82) 13 4.92 (1.89) 14 3.86 (1.46) 80 4.44 (1.86) 0.14
My intervention can be cost-effective compared to another intervention, even when its societal costs are higher than the regular care 28 5.82 (1.63) 15 4.93 (2.60) 17 5.18 (1.82) 17 5.76 (1.44) 14 4.86 (1.79) 91 5.40 (1.83) 0.23
From a healthcare payer perspective indirect costs in full (such as productivity losses) are included 28 3.36 (2.41) 15 2.40 (1.81) 16 2.63 (2.06) 14 2.86 (1.99) 12 3.75 (1.87) 85 3.02 (2.11) 0.28
  1. SD, Standard deviation