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Table 1 Selection of methods in research impact assessment and how they may be used to investigate and address gender bias

From: A global call for action to include gender in research impact assessment

Methods Applications
Logic modelling describes and graphically represents the chains of results associated with all stages of the research process; theories of change are formulated on the basis of these chains of results to explain how to achieve the desired results To provide a framework to systematically investigate gender equity at all stages of the research process, and investigate how gender equity can help maximise desired research outputs and impacts
Scientometrics pertain to the statistical analysis of articles and citations in academic journals (bibliometrics) and other research-based outputs, e.g. patents, commercialisation To measure gender-based differences in research outputs, their academic impacts, including gender-biased citation behaviour, and non-academic impacts
Altmetrics measure the online attention to academic articles on social media, mainstream news websites, blogs and social bookmarking websites To measure gender-based differences in more immediate academic and non-academic impact of research
Surveys, curriculum vitae data, narrative case studies and text-mining algorithms collect quantitative and qualitative information that may not already have been captured as part of the research process To investigate gender-based differences in perceptions of and approaches to the research process, outcomes and impacts
Information and management science approaches allow developing balanced scorecards and other performance management systems To assess and monitor gender equity in research organisations
Economic modelling categorises and cost-benefit analysis assesses different types of benefits from research To examine how gender equity can maximise economic returns on investment in research