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Table 3 Numbers of papers finding (dis-)economies of scale in biomedical and health research – by type of research group whose productivity is being analysed

From: Economies of scale and scope in publicly funded biomedical and health research: evidence from the literature

  Individual level (Principal Investigator) Research Teama Departmentb University/Research Institute Other Total
Diminishing returns to scale/Diseconomies of scale 2 3 1 3 9
Increasing returns to scale/Economies of scale 1 3 2 9 15
Constant returns to scale 1 3 1 2 7
Inverse U-shape 2 1 3
Not clear 2 1 3 2 8
Sub-total 6 12 7 13 4 42
Articles that suggest both diseconomies and economies of scale
 Multi-product cost functions applied 4 4
 Other methodology applied 1 4 5
Total 6 13 7 21 4 51
  1. aResearch Team = Sub-departmental laboratory/research unit
  2. bUniversity department or research centre inside a bigger organisation. A department is typically composed of a number of research teams