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Table 1 Definition of access categories at the journal level

From: Knowledge sharing in global health research – the impact, uptake and cost of open access to scholarly literature

Category Definition Article processing fees Subscription fees Embargo
Gold OA journal (no APC) OA journal that provides immediate access to all of their content free of charge to both readers and authors No No No
Gold OA journal (with APC) OA journal that provides free immediate access to all of their content based on an author-pays model via APCs Yes No No
Delayed OA journal Subscription journal that provides all content for free after an embargo period, which differs depending on the journals; journals that provide delayed OA to only some of their content were classified as subscription journals and their free papers identified as delayed OA articles No Yes Yes
Hybrid journal Subscription journal that is primarily financed by the reader-pays model based on subscriptions and pay-per-view fees, but allows authors to pay an APC to make their article available free of charge for the reader without delay Sometimes Yes Sometimes
Subscription only journal Subscription journal that is financed by reader-pays model based on subscriptions and pay-per-view fees and does not offer author-pays OA options No Yes Yes
Unknown Journal for which the access status could not be determined Unknown Unknown Unknown
  1. APC article processing charge, OA open access