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Table 4 Ranked technical issues, presented as groups of related issues and by rank

From: Identifying priority technical and context-specific issues in improving the conduct, reporting and use of health economic evaluation in low- and middle-income countries

Priority rank Technical issue Score Frequency in first rank
Lack of relevant data
1 Lack of high-quality local clinical data, where such data are critical to the decision 80 21%
3 Insufficient data to conduct study from chosen perspective 57 9%
5 Absence of locally relevant health state preference data suitable for estimating QALYs or DALYs 43 7%
Lack of commonly accepted standard or methods
2 Poor reporting 67 21%
4 A lack of commonly accepted standards for economic evaluation that is relevant to the LMIC for which the analysis is undertaken 57 19%
Inappropriate use of methods
6 Inappropriate choice of comparator(s) 29 7%
7 No budget constraints or thresholds considered 26 5%
8 Generalisability not discussed 14 3%
10 Equity and/or gender implications not considered 12 0%
11 No incremental analysis 11 1%
12 No, or inappropriate, sensitivity analysis 10 0%
13 All impacts implied by the chosen perspective not investigated 10 3%
15 Time horizon too short to capture relevant costs and health effects 9 1%
Inappropriate use of data
9 Clinical data not based on systematic review or primary clinical data not compared with similar studies done elsewhere 12 1%
14 Uncritical use of charges for cost data 9 1%