Skip to main content

Table 1 Overview of methodology, methods and participants included in country studies

From: Gendered health systems: evidence from low- and middle-income countries

Title Location Study design and methods Data sources Participants Analysis approach
Human Resources
 Women and Leadership within the Cambodia Health Sector Battambang province, Cambodia Qualitative, life history interviews In-depth interviews (N = 20) Health managers (14 F, 6 M) Thematic analysis
 Gender Mainstreaming in the Posting and Deployment of Health Workers in Zimbabwe Midlands province, Zimbabwe Cross-sectional mixed-methods design; Life history interviews Policy and documentreview National Gender Policy, Public Service Regulations, Manpower Development Plan Thematic analysis using a framework approach
In-depth interviews (N = 30) Health workers (nurses, midwives and environmental health technicians), N = 19 (8 M, 11 F)
Human resource officers/managers N = 11 (6 M, 5F)
 Exploring Gendered Experiences of Community Health Workers Using Photovoice in Rural Wakiso District, Uganda Wakiso district, Uganda Qualitative community-based participatory approach using photovoice Discussions during meetings around photographs Community health workers, N = 10 (5 F, 5 M) Conventional content analysis using Atlas ti version 6.0.15
Service Delivery
 Why are Maternal Health Outcomes Worse for Migrant Women in Masindi, Uganda? Nyantonzi Parish, Masindi district, western Uganda Qualitative FGDs (N = 5) Migrant women who have recently given birth
Migrant pregnant women
Spouses of migrant women whose wives were pregnant
Spouses of migrant women whose wives recently gave birth
Thematic analysis using NVIVO
 Are the Women of Indian Sundarbans Living in the Dark? An Intersectional Analysis of Eye Health Care Seeking Among the Elderly Indian Sundarbans, eastern Indian state of West Bengal Mixed methods Survey (N = 422) Visually impaired elderly (174 M/268 F) Quantitative data were analysed using STATA 11 and qualitative data analysed thematically using NVIVO 10
In-depth interviews (N = 24) Visually impaired elderly men and women (12 M/12 F)
 Gender Analysis of Family Care for Elderly: Evidence from Beijing, China Beijing, China Cross-sectional mixed methods study Survey (N = 924) Elderly (458 M, 466 F) Analysed using SPSS 19, using Mann–Whitney U test; descriptive analysis; binary logistic regression
In-depth interviews (N = 18) Households with elders and one of their children (9 M/9 F)
 Strengthening Male Involvement in Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Enugu State, Nigeria Enugu state, Nigeria Qualitative Document review Journal articles, Research reports, Nigerian policy documents on national guidelines on PMTCT and integrated national guidelines for HIV prevention, treatment and care, Global reports on PMTCT strategic vision Thematic content analysis using NVIVO 11
In-depth interviews (N = 30) Women and their male partners, N = 18 (9 F, 9 M)
Health workers (doctors, nurses, pharmacists), N = 12 (4 M/8 F)
FGDs (N = 4) Support groups (2 F, 2 M)
FGD participants = 30,
FGD F Enugu = 8, FGD F Nsukka = 8, FGD M Enugu = 6, FGD M Nsukka = 8
Financing and Governance
 Male Involvement in the National Health Insurance Fund/Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau Prepaid Insurance Card for Pregnant Women in Pangani District, Tanzania Pangani district,Tanzania Qualitative In-depth interviews (N = 6) Male partners who re-enrolled/did not re-enroll Thematic analysis
FGDs (N = 5) Female partners who re-enrolled/did not re-enroll, N = 3 (31 participants)
Community health workers, N = 2 (4 M/7 F)
Group discussions (N = 8) Healthcare providers, N = 5 (4 with female nurses and 1 with female nurses and one male nurse) (10 F, 1 M)
Managerial teams, N = 3), (7F, 5 M)
 Mainstreaming Gender into PMTCT Guidelines in Tanzania TANZANIA Qualitative Policy/ document review Five PMTCT policy/strategy documents Content analysis
Thematic analysis
Key informant interviews Leaders of the health facilities and heads of reproductive and child health units involved in PMTCT (N = 26)
  1. FGD focus group discussion, F female, M male, PMTCT prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS