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Table 2 Independent variables

From: Study protocol: a mixed-methods study of women’s healthcare in the safety net after Affordable Care Act implementation – EVERYWOMAN

Variable Description
Individual-level factors
 Age Date of birth, age categories
 Race White, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian, Black, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, other
 Ethnicity Hispanic/Latino
 Language English, Spanish, Russian, Vietnamese, Other
 Marital status Married, single, divorced, widowed
 Household income < 100% FPL, 100 ≤ 138% FPL, > 138% FPL
 Comorbidity Charleson Index/number of chronic conditions
 Mental and behavioural health Number of mental and behavioural health conditions
 Visit frequency Number of visits per study year
Contextual/community-level factors – Healthcare services
 Availability of healthcare services Physician density, Federally Qualified Health Center density, availability of Planned Parenthood or Title X funded family planning clinics
 Provision of gynaecologic care (clinic level) CPT codes for colposcopy, endometrial biopsy, LEEP, and/or dilation and curettage within the study period
 Provision of paediatric care (clinic level) Care of patients under age 18
 Provision of prenatal care (clinic level) CPT codes for prenatal care during the study period
 Provision of obstetric care (clinic level) Any clinic providers performing obstetric delivery
Contextual/community-level factors – Public policy support
 Receipt of Title X funding Clinic receipt of Title X funding during the study period
 State Medicaid expansion [49] Expansion vs. non-expansion states
 1115 Medicaid Waiver Presence/absence
 Women’s and children’s health policy Policies supporting maternal and child health
Contextual/community-level factors – Demographic and social compositiona
 Median household income Geocoded census tract-level median household income (American Community Survey) [50]
 Percent unemployed Percent unemployed in census tract-level median (American Community Survey) [50]
 Percent living in poverty Percent living below 100% FPL (American Community Survey) [50]
 Social Deprivation Index Composite measure of deprivation based on seven demographic characteristics collected in the American Community Survey [51]
  1. FPL federal poverty level, CPT current procedural terminology, LEEP loop electrosurgical excision procedure
  2. aCommunity-level demographic and social composition variables are geocoded and linked to patient clinical data in the ADVANCE research data warehouse using patient address information [43]