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Table 1 Types of shared mental models for policy implementation

From: Out of sync: a Shared Mental Models perspective on policy implementation in healthcare

Shared mental model typeDefinitionImportance
Policy relatedShared knowledge and understanding of policy goals, implementation strategies, contingency plans and environmental conditions as well as shared policy-relevant knowledgeStakeholders work towards a common vision efficiently and effectively
Stakeholder relatedShared knowledge and understanding of respective responsibilities, role interdependencies and communication mechanisms as well as shared understanding of others’ expertise, skills and preferencesStakeholders accurately tailor their behaviour to what they expect from others, particularly when time and circumstances do not permit explicit communication and strategising
BeliefsShared perceptions, opinions and values of key issues relevant to the policyStakeholders interpret and frame issues in a similar way, thereby reducing conflict
  1. Note: These mental model types and definitions are specific to policy implementation, and were adapted from the categories used in Shared Mental Model theory, namely task related, team related and beliefs [11, 21]