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Table 1 Articles included in scoping review

From: Making change last? Exploring the value of sustainability approaches in healthcare: a scoping review

Author Sustainability approach used in article Study aim Country Setting
1. Ahmad M.S. & Abu Talib N.B [45]. Program Sustainability Index To examine the community empowerment impact on sustainability of community driven projects after decentralization in Pakistan Pakistan Primary Care
2. Ahmad M.S. & Abu Talib N.B [46]. Program Sustainability Index To explore the relationship between community empowerment, sense of community and sustainability of community-driven projects Pakistan Primary Care
3. Atkins, S. et al. [47] Normalisation Process Model (NPM) To explore staff perceptions of a new TB treatment programme modelled on the antiretroviral treatment (ART) treatment programme. NPM used to highlight the experiences of staff in making the programme work in practice South Africa Primary Care
4. Bamford, C. et al. [48] Normalisation Process Theory To understand the barriers and facilitators to implementing nutrient- and food-based guidance for residential care homes and inform future implementation United Kingdom Tertiary Care
5. Blakeman et al. [49] Normalisation Process Theory To explore processes underpinning the normalisation of Chronic Kidney disease management in primary care United Kingdom Primary Care
6. Blanchet K et al. [50] The Sustainability Analysis Process (SAP) To use the SAP, to clarify the boundaries of systems, define sustainability, and identified sustainability indicators. To compare these definitions and use of sustainability indicators in two rehabilitation sectors Multiple Countries Tertiary Care
7. Bocoum et al. [51] Normalisation Process Model To describe the facilitators and barriers to the implementation of point of care testing for syphilis in antenatal care to assess the likelihood of the intervention becoming routinely incorporated in practice Kenya Primary Care
8. Burau et al. [52] Normalisation Process Theory To analyse the implementation of a structural health promotion intervention in community mental health organisations Denmark Primary Care
9. Campbell, S. et al. [53] Gruen’s Model of Health-Programme Sustainability To understand how hospitals using the Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation (OMSC) were addressing sustainability and determine if there were critical factors or issues that should be addressed as the program expanded Canada Primary Care
10. Chilundo et al. [54] Shell’s Capacity for Sustainability Framework To assess the long-term success of integrated community case management (iCCM) of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia, by investigating programme characteristics that facilitate or impede its sustainability Mozambique Primary Care
11. Coupe, N. et al. [55] Normalisation Process Theory To explore to what extent Collaborative Care (CC) impacts on professional working relationships, and if CC for depression could be implemented as routine in the primary care setting United Kingdom Primary Care
12. Cramm, J.M. & Nieboer, A.P [56]. Slaghuis’s Framework and Instrument for Sustainability To identify the predictive role of short- and long-term improvements in quality of chronic care delivery on program sustainability The Netherlands Tertiary Care
13. Cramm, J.M. et al. [57] Slaghuis’s Framework and Instrument for Sustainability To explore associations between partnership functioning synergy and sustainability of innovative programmes in community care The Netherlands Community Care
14. Deconinck et al. [58] Atun’s Conceptual Framework for Analysing Integration of Targeted Health Interventions into Health Systems To identify mechanisms promoting or hindering integration of acute malnutrition interventions into a national health system Niger Secondary Care
15. Desveaux et al. [59] Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) To explore how organizations respond to and interact with an accreditation process and the mechanisms through quality is influenced. NPT constructs used to categories and synthesized the themes emerging from the data Canada Multiple Settings
16. Diaz del Castillo [60] Conceptual Framework for Planning for Sustainability of Community-based Health Programs To identify the factors related to the sustainability and scaling up of two community-based programs offering physical activity classes in public spaces Colombia Community Care
17. Dickinson et al. [61] Normalisation Process Theory To explore the views and experiences of dementia care providers on the barriers and facilitators in implementing Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) in usual care United Kingdom Tertiary Care
18. Doyle, C. et al. [24] NHS III Sustainability Model To describes a formative evaluation of the application of the Sustainability Model within a quality improvement Programme United Kingdom Multiple settings
19. Drew, S. et al. [62] Normalisation Process Theory To understand how secondary fracture prevention services can be successfully implemented to inform the implementation and integration of these services into practice United Kingdom Secondary Care
20. Dugdale et al. [63] Normalisation Process Model To investigate how a treatment programme for substance misuse is embedded as normal practice within Crime Reduction Initiatives United Kingdom Community Care
21. Farr et al. [64] Normalisation Process Theory To analyse the implementation and acceptability of the eConsult system from patient and staff perspectives using the NPT as a framework to develop coding Australia Primary Care
22. Fleiszer, A. et al. [65] Fleiszer’s Framework for the Sustainability of Healthcare Innovations To understand how a nursing best practice guidelines program was sustained on acute healthcare centre nursing units. To guide data collection and content analysis Canada Tertiary Care
23. Ford, J.H. et al. [66] NHS III Sustainability Model To measure the sustained use of Family Care Maps within Polytrauma Rehabilitation Centres United States Tertiary Care
24. Fox et al. [67] Fox’s Sustainability of Innovation Theoretical Framework To guide data collection, analysis and reporting Australia Primary Care
25. Franx et al. [68] Normalisation Process Theory To provide a better understanding of the findings the process evaluation and guide recommendations to conduct implementation projects in depression care The Netherlands Primary Care
26. Furler et al. [69] Normalisation Process Model To support analysis of data and develop initial coding categories Australia Primary Care
27. Gask et al. [70] Normalisation Process Model To inform the process of implementation of collaborative care and provide a framework to guide analysis United Kingdom Primary Care
28. Gillespie et al. [71] Normalisation Process Theory To provide an explanatory model to explore and evaluate the implementation of a complex intervention in the Operating Room (OR) context Australia Primary Care
29. Glynn et al. [72] Normalisation Process Theory To conduct a theoretically informed analysis, using NPT, of the potential barriers and levers to the implementation of a health intervention to promote physical activity in primary care Ireland Primary Care
30. Godden & King [73] Normalisation Process Model To explore how successful implementation of proposed new technologies could be achieved through analysis using the NPT United Kingdom Primary Care
31. Green A.E. et al. [74] Program Sustainability Index To examine the role of collaborations in sustaining service delivery United States Primary Care
32. Herbert et al. [75] Normalisation Process Theory To gain an understanding of the facilitating factors and challenges of implementing the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programme using NPT to the develop the interview topic guide and to aid analysis United Kingdom Tertiary Care
33. Higuchi, K.S. et al. [76] NHS III Sustainability Model To examine the activities and resource implications for healthcare organisations involved in the introduction of multiple nursing guidelines, the Sustainability Model provided a framework to guide the examination of guideline implementation activities Canada Multiple settings
34. Hooker, L. et al. [77] Normalisation Process Theory To understand the barriers and facilitators of implementing an enhanced screening model into nurse clinical practice, NPT was used to inform the process evaluation of a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial Australia Primary Care
35. Ibrahim et al. [78] Normalisation Process Theory To evaluate the implementation of grip strength measurement into routine clinical practice. NPT offered a framework for identifying specific factors that enabled implementation United Kingdom Primary Care
36. Johnson et al. [79] Normalisation Process Theory To improve the nutritional care of preterm infants by developing a complex (multifaceted) intervention. NPT used as a framework to guide implementation in order to embed the new practices into routine care. United Kingdom Tertiary Care
37. Kennedy et al. [80] Normalisation Process Theory To refine components of the Whole System Informing Self-management Engagement (WISE) approach. NPT provided a framework for further development of the intervention United Kingdom Primary Care
28. Latter et al. [81] Normalisation Process Theory To develop a pain medicines management intervention for cancer patients’ carers and evaluate feasibility and acceptability to nurses and carers. Interview guides were informed by NPT United Kingdom Primary Care
39. Leon, N. et al. [82] Normalisation Process Model To inform theoretical analysis of the implementation processes for Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) with a view to improving the optimisation of PITC scale-up in the future. NPM provided a framework to inform analysis of the implementation processes South Africa Primary Care
40. Levin et al. [83] The ARCC (Advancing Research and Clinical practice through close Collaboration) model To determine the preliminary effects of implementing the Advancing Research and Clinical practice through close Collaboration (ARCC) model on nurses’ EBP beliefs, EBP implementation behaviours, group cohesion, productivity, job satisfaction, and attrition/turnover rates United States Primary Care
41. Lloyd, A. et al. [84] Normalisation Process Theory To use NPT to examine the work that needs to be done by health professionals to inform future efforts to implement and embed shared decision making United Kingdom Secondary Care
42. Mair et al. [85] Normalisation Process Model To perform a process evaluation of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of home telecare for the management of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), using the normalization process model (NPM) as an explanatory framework United Kingdom Primary Care
43. May et al. [86] Normalisation Process Theory To identify factors inhibiting the implementation and integration of telecare systems for chronic disease management in the community. United Kingdom Primary Care
44. Moreland-Russel et al. [87] Program Sustainability Assessment Tool To identify factors that influenced the sustainability capacity of a coordinated approach to chronic disease prevention United States Multiple Settings
45. Murray et al. [88] Normalisation Process Theory To explore and understand the experiences of implementing e-health initiatives and assess factors which promote or inhibit the successful implementation, embedding, and integration of e-health initiatives United Kingdom Multiple Settings
46. Naldemirci et al. [89] Normalisation Process Theory To analyse emergent strategies adopted by healthcare professionals to overcome barriers to normalization of a specific framework of person-centred care (PCC). NPT used to analyse different challenges and strategies in a systematic fashion Sweden Primary Care
47. O’Donnell and Kaner [90] Normalisation Process Theory NPT used to help understand the barriers and facilitators experienced by GPs as they implemented alcohol prevention activities in routine clinical practice United Kingdom Primary Care
48. O’Donnell et al. [91] Normalisation Process Theory To describe and reflect on the process of designing and delivering a training programme supporting the use of theory. NPT used to shape the study approach, facilitate data collection and guide the analysis Multiple Countries Multiple Settings
49. Pentecost et al. [92] Normalisation Process Theory To identify a set of principles that can be built into an innovative fundamental nursing care protocol to embed the system into nursing practice. NPT used in analysis to map process data onto NPT concepts United Kingdom Nursing Education
50. Redman & Barab [93] Level of Institutionalisation Scale To measure the amount of routinization of diabetes education programs Maryland and Pennsylvania hospitals United States Secondary Care
51. Sanders et al. [94] Normalisation Process Theory NPT was used to guide analysis and explain the uptake of a new system and to examine the relevance of coherence for the implementation of innovations in organisations United Kingdom Primary Care
52. Scott et al. [95] Conceptual Framework for Sustainability of Public Health Programs The framework was used to inform the design of a sustainable, locally acceptable and culturally appropriate public health program using stakeholder input on factors that affect program sustainability Zambia Community Care
53. Scudder et al. [96] Program Sustainability Assessment Tool To examine factors impacting the sustainability of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) in large-scale initiatives in order to identify potential predictors of sustainment United States Multiple Settings
54. Smith et al. [97] Program Sustainability Assessment Tool To examine how funding influenced the delivery of fall prevention strategies and the capacity for program implementation and sustainability among the three organisations. United States Multiple Settings
55. Stoll et al. [98] Program Sustainability Assessment Tool To understand the factors that influenced the programs’ expected sustainability of the programs after external funding ended United States Primary Care
56. Stolldorf et al. [99] Level of Institutionalisation Scale To determine the level of sustainability of rapid response teams (RRTs) among a group of hospitals that participated in a state-wide collaborative to implement and sustain RRTs United States Secondary Care
57. Sutton et al. [100] Normalisation Process Theory To explore the utility of NPT as a methodological framework to aid exploration of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programme implementation United Kingdom Tertiary Care
58. Thomas, L.H. et al. [101] Normalisation Process Theory To identify the organisational context for embedding the (Systematic Voiding Programme) SVP. NPT provided the theoretical framework for understanding practical issues involved in the interventions into routine practice United Kingdom Secondary Care
59. Toledo Romanib et al. [102] Level of Institutionalisation Scale To evaluate the sustainability of a community-based dengue control intervention over a period of 2 years after the withdrawal of external support Cuba Primary Care
60. Trietsch, J. et al. [103] Normalisation Process Theory To describe and analyse the challenges of embedding a quality improvement strategy to improve test-ordering behaviour of general practitioners The Netherlands Primary Care
61. Underwood, M.N. et al. [104] Leffer’s Conceptual Framework for Partnership and Sustainability To assess equitable partnerships between global partners to address areas of shared importance, such as equity and justice in health promotion Dominican Republic Nursing Education
62. Upvall et al. [105] Leffer’s Conceptual Framework for Partnership and Sustainability The purpose of this study was to revise a conceptual model of global health partnerships and collaboration integrating the perspectives of nurses from low- and middle-resource countries Multiple Countries Nursing Education
63. Van Acker et al. [106] Level of Institutionalisation Scale To explore the extent to which the ‘10,000 Steps’ was integrated within the culture of organizations Belgium Primary Care
64. Volker et al. [107] Normalisation Process Theory To determine the feasibility of translating intervention outcomes from the Model for Prevention study, into real world practice, implementation work done by stakeholders was examined using the NPT Australia Primary Care
65. Walker et al. [108] Normalisation Process Theory To support the development and optimisation of a Colorectal cancer RISk Prediction tool (‘CRISP’) for use in primary care. NPT used to develop interview guide and organise emerging themes Australia Primary Care
66. Wallen et al. [109] The ARCC (Advancing Research and Clinical practice through close Collaboration) model To guide for the development of a programme for nurses to become Evidence-based Practice mentors and champions. The ARCC model provided a framework for the development of the programme. United States Secondary Care
67. Winterton and Chambers [110] Conceptual Framework for Planning for Sustainability of Community-based Health Programs To explore barriers to delivering sustainable rural community programmes to increase social participation among Australian seniors Australia Community Care
68. Zakumumpa et al. [111] Level of Institutionalisation Scale To identify facilitators and barriers to the long-term sustainability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs at six health facilities Uganda Primary Care