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Table 2 List of indicators included in the EURO-HEALTHY Population Health Index model, grouped by population health area of concern and health dimension

From: Advancing tools to promote health equity across European Union regions: the EURO-HEALTHY project

Population health area of concernHealth dimensionIndicators
Economic conditions, social protection and securityEmploymentUnemployment rate (%)
Long-term unemployment rate – 12 months and more (%)
Income and living conditionsDisposable income of private households per capita (Euro per inhabitant)
People at risk of poverty or social exclusion (%)
Disposable income ratio – S80/S20 (ratio)
Social protectionExpenditure on care for the elderly (% of GDP)
SecurityCrimes recorded by the police (per 100,000 inhabitants)
EducationEducationPopulation aged 25–64 with upper secondary or tertiary education attainment (%)
Early leavers from education and training (%)
Demographic changeAgeingAt risk of poverty rate of older people – aged 65 years and over (%)
Ageing index (ratio)
Lifestyle and health behavioursLifestyle and health behavioursAdults who are obese (%)
Daily smokers – aged 15 and over (%)
Pure alcohol consumption – aged 15 and over (litres per capita)
Live births by mothers under the age of 20 (%)
Physical environmentPollutionAnnual mean of the daily PM2.5 concentrations (μg/m3)
Annual mean of the daily PM10 concentrations (μg/m3)
Greenhouse gases (total tonnes of CO2 eq. emissions per capita)
Population exposed to traffic noise – (Lden 55–59 db, during day) (%)a
Extreme weather eventsaPopulation affected by flooding (per 1,000,000 inhabitants)a
Built environmentHousing conditionsAverage number of rooms per person
Households without indoor flushing toilet (%)
Households without central heating (%)
Water and sanitationPopulation connected to public water supply (%)
Population connected to wastewater treatment plants (%)
Waste managementRecycling rate of municipal waste (%)
Land useaPopulation density (inhabitants/km2)a
Road safetyRoad safetyVictims in road accidents – injured and killed (per 100,000 inhabitants)
Fatality rate due to road traffic accidents (per 1000 victims)
Healthcare resources and expenditureHealthcare resourcesMedical doctors (per 100,000 inhabitants)
Health personnel – nurses and midwives, dentists, pharmacists and physiotherapists (per 100,000 inhabitants)
Healthcare expenditureTotal health expenditure (PPS$ per capita)
Private households’ out-of-pocket expenses on health (% of total health expenditure)
Public expenditure on health (PPS$ per capita)
Healthcare performanceHealthcare performanceHospital discharges due to diabetes, hypertension and asthma (per 100,000 inhabitants)
Amenable deaths due to healthcare (standardised death rate per 100,000 inhabitants)
Health outcomesLength of life (mortality)Life expectancy at birth (years)
Infant mortality (per 1000 live births)
Preventable deaths (standardised death rate per 100,000 inhabitants)
Quality of life (morbidity)Self-perceived health less than good (%)
Age-standardized disability-adjusted life year rate (per 100,000 inhabitants)
Low birth weight (%)
  1. Lden day–evening–night noise level, PPS purchasing power standards
  2. a Dimensions and indicators included in the Population Health Index model (conceptual) but not used in its application (adjusted) to the 269 NUTS 2 regions, due to lack of data