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Table 2 For better research, INVVOLVE research end-users in co-design

From: Research co-design in health: a rapid overview of reviews

Invest in co-designAllocate sufficient time and resources
Pay/reward participants for their time
Provide training, if needed
Needs assessmentDetermine project co-design needs: why, how and on what will co-design participants and researchers collaborate?
Vision roles, responsibilities and rewardsSet clear roles and responsibilities of all participants in co-design
Clarify how co-design participant feedback will be used
Ensure all parties understand the importance of co-design and the potential benefits
Manage expectations – make sure that there is a shared vision and goal
Validate participantsEmpower and nurture participants so that they are confident enough to engage with researchers and the research process
Organise interaction carefullyMake sure meeting places are accessible and familiar
Make sure that any interactions are well structured and regular
Regularly communicate and update all parties
Prepare aids, such as glossaries, images and plans, as meeting facilitators
Have backup co-design participants as some may drop out
Lead the engagementCarefully define and control the scope of engagement
Don’t let groups dominate conversations and decision-making
Discuss and defuse tensions
Value patient time and inputBuild trust and rapport between researchers and co-design participants
Give co-design participants some choice and control
Evaluate and reportDocument all engagement processes
Evaluate processes and outcomes based on predetermined criteria
Report findings