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Table 7 Overarching outcomes and impacts

From: A review of reviews on principles, strategies, outcomes and impacts of research partnerships approaches: a first step in synthesising the research partnership literature

Beneficial outcomes/impacts Challenging outcomes/impacts Subcategory
Researchers have experienced increased ‘capacity, knowledge and skills’ related to planning, conducting and disseminating research in partnership with stakeholders; this may include a better understanding of the area under study and/or an increased awareness of community issues   Outcomes and impacts on researchers conducting partnership research (individual level)
Researchers have experienced ‘personal benefits’ from working in a research partnership such as enhanced motivation for the research project and/or lightening of the workload Researchers have experienced ‘personal challenges’ when working in a research partnership such as uncomfortable feelings when sharing power over the research and/or the additional time and financial burden associated with the research partnership
Stakeholders have experienced increased ‘capacity, knowledge and skills’ related to research processes; this may include a better understanding of the area under study and/or an increased awareness to the application of the research   Outcomes and impacts on stakeholders involved in research partnerships (individual level)
Stakeholders have experienced a more ‘positive attitude’ towards research and researchers  
Stakeholders have reported better access to information relevant for them such as information on treatments or management of specific diseases or illnesses  
Stakeholders have experienced ‘personal benefits’ from working in a research partnership; examples include, but are not limited to, feeling empowered, feeling valued, increased confidence, increased sense of accomplishment, extended social and support network, and/or increased chances on future employment Stakeholders have experienced ‘personal challenges’ when working in a research partnership, such as feelings of not being listened to, not being empowered, not being taken seriously, frustrated and/or dissatisfied about the research processes
  Stakeholders have experienced ‘feeling overburdened’ by tasks and responsibilities
Partners have reported that the research partnership can ‘have positive outcomes/impacts on the relationship’ between researchers and stakeholders; examples include, but are not limited to, greater partnership synergy, mutual respect, mutual understanding of work style, language, needs and constraints, and/or can create sustainable collaborations Partners have reported that the research partnership may result in ‘conflicts’ between researchers and stakeholders Outcomes and impacts on the relationship between researchers and stakeholders (partnership level)
Partners have reported that the research partnership can ‘create system changes or action’ by influencing policy-making, improving community services, improving health-related outcomes for community, and/or creating capacity to sustain the projects   Outcomes and impacts on the community or society
Partners have reported that the research partnership can ‘increase capacity’ in the community by creating better understanding of research in the community and/or increased awareness and knowledge of the study topic  
Partners have reported that the research partnership can increase ‘community empowerment’  
Partners have reported that the research partnership can ‘create community ownership’ of the research  
Partners have reported that the research partnership can increase the ‘acceptability and trust of the research’ in the community  
  Partners have reported that research partnership may create ‘challenging outcomes or impacts on the community’ such as increased time and financial burden on the community organisations, further stigmatisation of the group and/or negative research findings
Partners have reported that the research partnership can create ‘relevant and useful research findings’   Outcomes and impacts on the research process
Partners have reported that the research partnership can create ‘high quality research’ by generating credible and valid data, developing effective interventions, and/or unearthing new information; the partnership can also general new and other projects  
Partners have reported that the research partnership can create ‘increased capacity’ to conduct and disseminate the research  
  Partners have reported that the research partnership may lead to negative outcomes or impacts, including biased data or tokenism
  1. Notes: Partners include both researchers and stakeholders. As the literature did not differentiate between outcomes and impacts and these terms were used interchangeably throughout the literature, we did not distinguish our results between outcomes and impacts. Challenging outcomes/impacts were also reported in the literature as (potential) negative outcomes/impacts. The order of the outcomes/impacts does not relate to the frequencies