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Table 1 Clinical guideline (CG) development organizations and procedures (respondents n = 48)

From: The development of clinical guidelines in China: insights from a national survey

Characteristics Category No. (%)
Contact source
(n = 114)
Published Chinese CG 17/74 (23.0)
CG developer recommendations 10/10 (100)
Clinical expert recommendations 21/30 (70.0)
Responder employmenta (n = 48) Hospital 40 (78.4)
Research/knowledge production institution 9 (17.6)
Government 2 (3.9)
RegionA
(n = 48)
North China 16 (33.3)
East China 13 (27.1)
South Central China 12 (25.0)
Northeast China 3 (6.3)
Southwest China 2 (4.2)
Northwest China 1 (2.1)
Unclear 1 (2.1)
CG scopeB
(n = 48)
Internal medicine 13 (27.1)
Obstetrics and gynaecology 10 (20.8)
Clinical epidemiology 5 (10.4)
Paediatrics 4 (8.3)
Surgery 4 (8.3)
Oncology 3 (6.3)
Acupuncture and tuina science 2 (4.2)
Geriatrics 1 (2.1)
Ophthalmology 1 (2.1)
Nursing 1 (2.1)
Dermatology and venereology 1 (2.1)
Pharmaceutics 1 (2.1)
Chinese medicine 1 (2.1)
Unknown 1 (2.1)
Organizations Category n (%)
Type
(n = 48)
Professional/medical association 22 (45.8)
CG expert committee 21 (43.8)
Research institution 5 (10.4)
Development experience (n = 48) > 10 years 21 (43.8)
3–5 years 14 (29.2)
6–10 years 7 (14.6)
< 3 years 5 (10.4)
  Do not know 1 (2.2)
Use of a handbookb
(n = 48)
Yes 30 (62.5)
No 18 (37.5)
Handbook used
(n = 30)
International organization (e.g., WHO, NICE) 14(46.7)
Not reported 6 (20.0)
CG development tool/methodology (e.g., GRADE, AGREE II, or GRADE-ADOLOPMENT) 4 (13.3)
In-house handbook 3 (10.0)
Expert experience and opinion 3 (10.0)
Guideline development unit (n = 48) No 45 (93.8)
Yes 3 (6.3)
Development processa
(n = 48)
De novo based on scientific evidence 43 (89.6)
Adapted from other CGs 36 (75.0)
De novo based on expert experience and opinion 31 (64.6)
Adopted directly/translated from other CGs 13 (27.1)
Updating of other CGs 13 (27.1)
  1. GRADE Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation; AGREE II Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II; NICE National Institute for Health and Care Excellence
  2. ABased on China's regional economic divisions, one participant from abroad collaborates with Chinese CG development
  3. BScope classified according to clinical discipline
  4. aMore than one response possible
  5. bOpen-ended response