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Table 2 De novo clinical guideline (CG) development (n = 38)

From: The development of clinical guidelines in China: insights from a national survey

Methods (yes responses) n (%)
The institution has a formal CG working group 21 (55.3)
Evidence is retrieved using systematic searching 35 (92.1)
Eligibility criteria are used to select evidence 37 (97.4)
Evidence limitations are assessed 29 (76.3)
Evidence quality/certainty is rated 36 (94.7)
Strength of recommendations is rated 35 (92.1)
A formal decision-making process is followed 29 (76.3)
The balance between benefits and harms is considered 31 (81.6)
Patient values and preferences are considered 33 (86.8)
Cost and resources needed are considered 33 (86.8)
Other factors are considered 31 (81.6)
An external review is conducted 34 (89.5)
Specific methods (open-ended responses) n (%)
Stakeholder involvementa
Stakeholders Working group (n = 21) External review (n = 34)
Clinicians 20 (95.2) 34 (100.0)
Methodologists 18 (85.7) 30 (88.2)
Policy-makers 7 (33.3) 18 (52.9)
Patient representatives 9 (42.9) 9 (26.5)
Other 1 (4.8) 4 (11.8)
Systematic searcha (n = 35)
 Search is conducted in at least two databases 27 (77.1)
 Formal/rigorous search strategy is used 26 (74.3)
 Other 1 (2.9)
Evidence limitations (n = 29)
Methodological tools (e.g., Cochrane RoB, ROBINS I) 21 (72.4)
Expert opinion 8 (27.6)
Formal decision-makinga (n = 29)
 Voting system 16 (55.2)
 Delphi consensus 15 (51.7)
 Informal consensus or expert opinion 8 (27.6)
Cost/resourcesa (n = 33)
 Based on expert opinion 26 (78.8)
 Based on evidence synthesis 19 (57.6)
 Based on studies (e.g., cost-effectiveness, cost–utility, budgetary impact) 14 (42.4)
Other factorsa (n = 31)
 Based on expert opinion 26 (83.9)
 Based on evidence synthesis (e.g., local data) 16 (51.6)
 Based on studies (e.g., interviews) 9 (29.0)
Patient values/preferencesa (n = 33)
 Based on expert opinion 21 (63.6)
 Based on consultation with patient representatives 14 (42.4)
 Based on evidence synthesis 12 (36.4)
 Based on studies (e.g., reviews, surveys) 9 (27.3)
  1. RoB risk of bias; ROBINS I Risk of Bias in Non-randomised Studies of Interventions
  2. aMore than one response possible