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Table 1 Ways of spinning information to influence people

From: Health communication in and out of public health emergencies: to persuade or to inform?

Factors that can affect a decision Spin to influence people to behave in a desired way
The effects of behaving in the desired way compared to other options Emphasize or exaggerate the benefits of behaving in the desired way
Ignore or downplay the harms or undesirable effects of behaving in the desired way
Ignore or downplay uncertainty about the benefits, and emphasize or exaggerate uncertainty about the harms
Neglect to consider or point out that people may weigh desirable and undesirable outcomes differently
Assume or imply that the desirable effects far outweigh the undesirable effects
Costs of behaving in the desired way compared to other options Ignore or downplay the costs and emphasize or exaggerate the savings of behaving in the desired way
Ignore or downplay uncertainty about the savings and emphasize or exaggerate uncertainty about the costs
Ignore, assume or imply the intervention is cost-effective, and ignore uncertainty
Alternatives to the desired option Misinform or leave out information about relevant alternatives