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Table 2 Characteristics of included tools

From: Tools for assessing the scalability of innovations in health: a systematic review

Name (abbreviation)a [References] Type and source Scalability component targeted by toolsb Number of items Pitfall predictionsc
Type Year of issue or publication Source of funding Language Type of stakeholder Open-access source C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11
Innovation Scalability Self-administered Questionnaire (ISSaQ) [2, 3] Checklist 2017 Governmental organization English, French Researcher Peer-reviewed journal     16 \({\text{P}}_{3,8}\)
AnalySe de la Transférabilité et accompagnement à l’Adaptation des Interventions en pRomotion de la santE (ASTAIRE) [53, 54] 2013 Governmental organization English, French Researcher Peer-reviewed journal     23 \({\text{P}}_{2,3,7,8}\)
WHO/ExpendNet [123, 124] 2011 Governmental and nongovernmental organizations English Not found Organizational website      23 \({\text{P}}_{1,3,4,7,8}\)
Scalability Checklist [127,128,129] 2016 Nongovernmental organization English Not found Organizational website      7 \({\text{P}}_{3,8}\)
Baker et al. [47] Criteria 2011 Governmental organization English Not found ResearchGate           16 \({\text{P}}_{1,2,6,7,8}\)
Bennett et al. [48] 2017 Governmental organization English Not found Peer-reviewed journal        8 \({\text{P}}_{3,8}\)
Burchett et al. [50] 2011 Not found English Researcher ResearchGate        17 \({\text{P}}_{3,5,8}\)
Burchett et al. [51] 2012 Governmental organization English Clinician, policy-maker, researcher Not found       15 \({\text{P}}_{3,6,7,8}\)
Cambon et al. [52] 2012 Governmental organization English Not found Peer-reviewed journal     32 \({\text{P}}_{1,3,6,7,8}\)
Process model for the assessment of transferability (PIET-T) [55] 2018 Governmental organization English Not found Peer-reviewed journal 14 \({\text{P}}_{2,8}\)
Spicer et al. [56] 2014 Nongovernmental organization English Policy-maker, researcher, civil society organizations Peer-reviewed journal      22 \({\text{P}}_{3,8}\)
Wang et al. [58] 2005 Not found English Not found Not found         12 \({\text{P}}_{6,8}\)
Milat et al. [20, 21, 120] 2012 Governmental organization English Policy-maker, researcher Peer-reviewed journal, ResearchGate, organizational website     21 \({\text{P}}_{3,5,8}\)
CORRECT attributesd [6, 121, 122] 2010 Governmental organization English, French, Spanish Not found Organizational website         17 \({\text{P}}_{3,6,8}\)
Bhattacharyya et al. [49] Scale 2017 Governmental and nongovernmental organizations English Policy-maker Peer-reviewed journal           8 \({\text{P}}_{2,3,8}\)
Scalability assessment framework [57] 2018 Nongovernmental organization English Not found Not found     16 \({\text{P}}_{3,7,8}\)
Intervention Scalability Assessment Tool (ISAT) [22] 2019 Governmental organization English Clinician, policy-maker, researcher Organizational website   19 \({\text{P}}_{3,8}\)
Readiness to Spread Assessment Scoring Sheet [125] 2013 Not found English Not found Organizational website          4 \({\text{P}}_{5}\)
Readiness to Receive Assessment Scoring Sheet [126] 2013 Not found English Not found Organizational website            4 \({\text{P}}_{8}\)
Applicability and Transferability of Evidence Tool (A&T Tool) [118, 119] 2007 Governmental organization English, French Not found Organizational website         21 \({\text{P}}_{3,7,8}\)
Scalability Assessment and Planning (SAP) Toolkit [130]   2018 Not found English Researcher Organizational website           5 Not found
  1. aWe did not find names for 10 of the tools, in which case we indicated names of authors or organizations
  2. bScalability components targeted: (\({\text{C}}_{1}\)) health problem addressed by the innovation; (\({\text{C}}_{2}\)) development process of the innovation; (\({\text{C}}_{3}\)) innovation characteristics; (\({\text{C}}_{4}\)) strategic, political or environmental context of the innovation; (\({\text{C}}_{5}\)) evidence available for effectiveness of the innovation; (\({\text{C}}_{6}\)) innovation costs and quantifiable benefits; (\({\text{C}}_{7}\)) potential for implementation fidelity and adaptation of the innovation; (\({\text{C}}_{8}\)) potential reach and acceptability to the target population; (\({\text{C}}_{9}\)) delivery setting and workforce; \({\text{C}}_{10}\)) implementation infrastructure required for scale-up; and (\({\text{C}}_{11}\)) sustainability (i.e. longer-term outcomes of the scale-up)
  3. cPitfalls of scale-up relate to: (\({\text{P}}_{1}\)) sex and gender considerations; (\({\text{P}}_{2}\)) patient and public involvement; (\({\text{P}}_{3}\)) the difficulty of cost-effectiveness estimates; (\({\text{P}}_{4}\)) the production of health inequities; (\({\text{P}}_{5}\)) scaled-up harm; (\({\text{P}}_{6}\)) ethics (e.g. informed consent at scale); (\({\text{P}}_{7}\)) top-down approaches (i.e. the needs, preferences and culture of beneficiaries of the innovation may be forgotten when scale-up is directed from above); and (\({\text{P}}_{8}\)) context (e.g. difficulty in adapting the innovation to certain contexts)
  4. dCORRECT attributes: C—credible in that they are based on sound evidence or advocated by respected persons or institutions; O—observable to ensure that potential users can see the results in practice; R—relevant for addressing persistent or sharply felt problems; R—relative advantage over existing practices so that potential users are convinced the costs of implementation are warranted by the benefits; E—easy to install and understand rather than complex and complicated; C—compatible with the potential users’ established values, norms and facilities; fit well into the practices of the national programme; and T—testable so that potential users can see the innovation on a small scale prior to large-scale adoption
  5. is a checkmark for the item