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Table 1 The linkage between fiscal policy and health

From: Exploring the possible sources of fiscal space for health in India: insights from political regimes

Country Fiscal policy measures Fiscal space for health channels
Uganda [21] Increase domestic revenue and improve efficiency and absorptive capacity of grants Domestic revenue mobilization
Nigeria [24] Increase tax revenue from the oil sector and the utilization of existing resources Alternative revenue mobilization
Bhutan [26] Generate health-specific revenue (i.e. earmarked taxes) Alternative revenue mobilization
Nepal [27] Higher tax collection from payroll tax, value-added tax and excise duty Alternative revenue mobilization
South-East Asia Region (SEAR) [28] Increase tax revenues from earmarked and sin tax Alternative revenue mobilization
Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) [32] Smooth flow of central grants due to good coordination between central government and states Prioritization of government
Bhutan [25] Create an enabling environment for private health providers Prioritization of government
Ghana [33] Increase efficiency and absorptive capacity of health grants Alternative revenue mobilization
Asian [37] Higher excise duty on tobacco products (i.e. cigarettes and alcohol) Alternative revenue mobilization
Indonesia [38] Enhance the indirect tax base and increase nontax revenue by exploiting natural resources Alternative revenue mobilization
South Africa [34] Improving tax administration by minimizing tax evasion Alternative revenue mobilization
Nepal [35] Technological advancement in tax collection and minimizing leakage in health insurance payments to the poor by facilitating online bank transactions Alternative revenue mobilization
Bangladesh [29] Improve tax collection and prioritization of the health budget Prioritization of government
Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) [30] Generate more nontax revenue through natural resources Alternative revenue mobilization
Indian States [9] Emphasize fiscal capacity by raising domestic revenue Domestic revenue mobilization
India [6] Compulsory tax-based financing system for the health sector Prioritization of government
India [31] Disease-specific and need-based financing grants from central government to states Prioritization of government
India [39] Strong political commitment to implementing health programmes for primary health services Prioritization of government
  1. Source Authors’ representation