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Table 5 Trends of fiscal space indicators across political regimes (as a % of GDP)

From: Exploring the possible sources of fiscal space for health in India: insights from political regimes

Fiscal space indicators NDA1
1998–2003
UPA1
2004–2008
UPA2
2009–2013
NDA2
2014–2020
Revenue mobilization     
 Central tax revenue 3.2 5.4 7.3 9.1
 Central nontax revenue 1.4 1.4 1.8 1.9
 State tax revenue 2.7 3.9 6.2 8.5
 State nontax revenue 0.7 1.0 1.2 1.5
 Grants from the centre 0.8 1.4 2.0 3.6
 Share in central tax 1.2 1.9 2.8 4.8
Expenditure prioritization     
 Developmental expenditure 7.2 9.9 16.0 21.5
 Non-developmental expenditure 6.6 8.1 11.2 14.7
 Health expenditure 0.5 0.5 0.7 1.3
 Subsidies 0.7 1.1 2.4 2.4
 Defence expenditure 1.1 1.4 1.9 2.1
 Administrative services 0.6 0.6 1.0 1.3
 Pension and misc. general services 0.7 0.9 1.5 2.2
 Interest payments 2.3 2.4 3.2 4.2
Borrowings     
 Gross fiscal deficit 4.6 4.2 7.5 8.6
 External liabilities of the centre 4.3 3.3 3.5 3.7
 Domestic liabilities of centre and states 34.9 48.1 63.9 90.6
  1. NDA National Democratic Alliance; UPA United Progressive Alliance government