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Table 1 Summary of evidence of health risks linked to SSB consumption (table adapted from World Bank 2020 [1]

From: Sugar-sweetened beverage tax implementation processes: results of a scoping review

Health risks Nature of evidence Key references
Weight gain, overweight, obesity Strong, consistent evidence of direct, causal relationship Bleich and Vercammen 2018 [6]; Malik et al. 2013 [7]; Te Morenga et al. 2012 [8]; Trumbo and Rivers 2014 [9]
Type 2 diabetes Strong positive association (independent and BMI-mediated) Imamura 2015 [10]; Malik 2010 [11]; Schulze et al. 2004 [12]
Dental caries Strong positive dose–response relationship Bleich and Vercammen 2018 [6]
Metabolic syndrome Positive association (independent and BMI-mediated) Malik et al. 2010 [11]
CVD risk factors and outcomes Strong positive association with CHD (independent and BMI-mediated); association with stroke less clear Fung et al. 2009 [13]; de Koning et al. 2012 [14]; Malik et al. 2010 [15]; Malik and Hu 2019 [16]; Te Morenga et al. 2014 [17]; Xi 2015 [18]
Cancer Positively associated with increased risk of at least 12 cancers (independent and BMI-mediated) Chazelas et al. 2019 [19]; Guh et al. 2009 [20]; Mueller et al. 2010 [21]; WCRF and AICR 2018 [22]
All-cause and cause-specific mortality Positively associated with higher risk of death from all causes. Linked to 184,000 deaths worldwide: 76% in low- and middle-income countries and 72% related to type 2 diabetes Mullee et al. 2019 [23]; Singh et al. 2015 [24]
  1. BMI body mass index, CHD coronary heart disease, CVD cardiovascular disease