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Table 3 Key Characteristics and outcomes of studies

From: A mixed-methods systematic review of suicide prevention interventions involving multisectoral collaborations

First author, year of publication (country)
Publication type
Aim(s) Setting Framework Study type Outcomes MMAT score (%)
Allen, 2009 (United States) [49]
Journal article
Evaluate changes in community readiness to engage in suicide and alcohol prevention activities and to build protective factors for youth Community CBPR Quasi-experimental Increase in community readiness and significant (p < 0.05) increase in number of protective behaviours in youth (Intermediate social outcome) 60
Braun, 2020 (Austria) [35]
Journal article
Explore the experiences of adolescents producing suicide prevention videos targeting other adolescents in a school setting School N/A Qualitative Youth experienced personal growth; felt more capable of safely communicating about suicide, understanding feelings of suicide and offering support. Involvement of young people in the development of prevention material led to creation of materials targeting the needs of peers (Service outcome) 100
Brown, 2020 (Australia) [36]
Journal article
Describe a qualitative study to increase understanding of how a mobile application could be used to support suicide prevention gatekeepers Community Participatory research Qualitative Gatekeepers should be trained across multiple roles, and apps should include culturally appropriate refresher content; information on accessing peer support and debriefing and be available across multiple platforms (Service outcome) 100
Bruck, 2018 (United States) [48]
Examine the process of conducting a project with young people as co-researchers, and factors associated with youth mental health Community N/A Mixed methods Participating in research process included increases in psychological empowerment. No changes reported on measures of self-esteem. Examination of factors associated with mental health in young people (higher reported depression, anxiety, and self-harm and suicidal behaviours). Prefer to seek help from friends when experiencing emotional problems (Intermediate social outcome) 60
Chaniang, 2019 (Thailand) [47]
Journal article
Develop, implement and evaluate a suicide prevention programme Community Action research Mixed methods Significant enhancements in the post-test mean scores of suicide knowledge and attitude among adolescent peer leaders, parents and schoolteachers (Intermediate social outcome) 40
Chowdhury, 2013 (India) [37]
Journal article
Develop a deliberate self-harm suicide prevention programme Community CBPR Qualitative Based on admission data, the project led to a reduction in deliberate self-harm (Health outcome) 100
Ford-Paz, 2015 (United States) [38]
Journal article
Understand limitations of existing targeted suicide prevention programmes; identify sociocultural factors leading to the development of depression in Latino adolescents; generate ideas for culturally tailored depression/suicide prevention interventions Community CBPR Qualitative Culturally tailored suicide prevention interventions may be more effective in reducing depression and suicide in Latino adolescents and utilizing non-mental health professionals and strengths-based strategies may help to decrease depression in at-risk Hispanic young people (Service outcome) 100
Gryglewicz, 2014 (United States) [39]
Journal article
Provide an example of how to partner with community participants when producing a community-based suicide prevention resource Community CBPR Qualitative Partnership between community participants and researchers promoted a co-learning and empowering environment (intermediate Social outcome) 100
Holliday, 2018 (United States) [40]
Journal article
Determine a pilot project and test a pilot project to prevent suicide and substance use Community CBPR Qualitative Community identified that project addressing youth suicide and substance abuse was priority; project should be cultural and strengths-based and should use readily available resources (Service outcome) 100
Le & Gobert, 2015 (Canada) [42]
Journal article
Engage in translation of a mindfulness curriculum for cultural relevancy and conduct a feasibility study of the curriculum with a sample of Native American youth Community/School N/A Mixed methods Mindfulness intervention is acceptable to Native American youth, with positive indications in terms of better self-regulation, less mind-wandering and decreased suicidal thoughts (Intermediate social outcome) 0
Mullany, 2009 (United States) [50]
Journal article
Examine suicide and suicide attempt rates and risk factors Community CBPR Quantitative descriptive Universal and targeted suicidal behaviour prevention interventions may be most effective when started within younger age groups; successful implementation of community surveillance system (Service outcome) 60
Nasir, 2017 (Australia) [41]
Journal article
Review existing gatekeeper training programmes and identify key elements Community CBPR Qualitative Limitations of existing gatekeeper training programmes included irrelevance, inconsistent content and unsustainable for rural and regional Indigenous communities. Key elements identified for culturally appropriate gatekeeper training programmes included short duration, practical, relevant to language, sustainable, adaptable across communities, cost-effective, integrate existing resources with a holistic focus on community well-being (Service outcome) 80
O’Grady, 2020 (Ireland) [43]
Journal article
Develop a mobile app to facilitate service users’ access to mental health support and safety planning Clinical Participatory research Mixed methods Creation of a mental health app with the main benefits being overall design and privacy and data security features (Service outcome) 40
Povey, 2020 (Australia) [44]
Journal article
Draft a culturally appropriate e-mental health resource Community Participatory research Mixed methods Apps may overcome barriers by increasing mental health literacy, providing anonymity and linking users with support. Preferred app elements included a strength-based approach, mental health information, relatable content, fun and appealing, with user-friendly interface (Service outcome) 80
Skerrett, 2018 (Australia) [45]
Journal article
Describe the design and implementation of a group-based intervention and report on measures Community CBPR Mixed methods Decrease in suicidal ideation, psychological distress and low self esteem; improved understanding of holistic health and coping skills, due to involvement and acceptance by local community, increased referrals to organizations providing mental health support (Health outcome) 100
Thorn, 2020, (Australia) [46]
Journal article
Aim to document key elements of the co-design process, to evaluate the co-design process and to document recommendations Community Participatory research Mixed method Increase in suicide literacy among young people; co-design process was feasible, safe and acceptable (Service outcome) 60