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Table 7 Examples for mentions of each practice, divided by policy type (empty sections indicate that no section regarding the metric was found)

From: Do German university medical centres promote robust and transparent research? A cross-sectional study of institutional policies

  Clinical research units Animal research facilities General research website
Study registration “We offer you the entry of your clinical study both prospectively and retrospectively, i.e., after the study has already started, or support with the entry by yourself.”
“The Center for Clinical Trials provides free access to for scientists of the <institution>. Via this access, investigator-initiated trials from the local area of responsibility can be entered in the registry.”
“Since the beginning of this year, all new clinical studies conducted at the University Medical Center have been centrally recorded in the Research Registry University Medicine <institution>”
“The analyses will be carried out according to statistical analysis plans that were already designed at the time of study planning”
“The Animal Study Registry provides a platform for pre-registration of an accurate study plan for animal experimental studies prior to the start of experiments, to avoid selective reporting. […] <Institution> 3R sponsors first entries with 500 euros each for research”
“The <institution’s> 3Rs toolbox is structured along the lines of the <other institution’s> 6Rs model […], which adds robustness, registration, and reporting to replacement, reduction, and refinement.”
“When should a study project be listed in a public study registry? The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) requires prospective registration in an ICMJE-recognised registry for all clinical trials to be published by one of the participating journals. The new version of the Declaration of Helsinki also requires this: Article 19 Every clinical trial shall be registered in a publicly accessible database before recruitment of the first subject. The Ethics Committee of the <institution> supports this requirement.”
“Recommendation for registration in the DRKS. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) requires prospective registration in an ICMJE-recognised registry for all clinical trials to be published by one of the participating journals. The current version of the Declaration of Helsinki also calls for this (Article 35: “Every research project involving human subjects shall be registered in a publicly accessible database before recruitment of the first subject.”). The Ethics Committee of the <institution> supports this call.”
Reporting of results “ <Institution>: 92% of clinical studies published in EU [European Union] database”
“The CRU [clinical research unit] at <institution> offers support with the following tasks, among others: […] Support in writing publications”
“In principle, a publication of the results should be aimed at…”
“Fiddle is a tool developed by <institution> to combat publication bias. This ‘match-making’ tool helps researchers to identify alternative ways of publishing information from well-designed experiments, which is often difficult to publish in traditional journals (i.e., null or neutral results, datasets, etc.).” “As a matter of principle, contributors to research projects are required to actively seek, or at least not refuse, publication of the results.”
“As a rule, scientists contribute all results to the scientific discourse. In individual cases, however, there may be reasons not to make results publicly available (in the narrower sense in the form of publications but also in the broader sense via other communication channels); this decision must not depend on third parties.”
“Findings that do not support the authors' hypothesis should also be reported.”
“Scientific results are to be communicated to the scientific public in the form of publications; the scientific publications are thus—like the scientific observation or the scientific experiment itself—the product of the work of scientists.”
“Rules for the publication of results: publication in principle of results obtained with public funds (principle of publicity of basic research), publication also of falsified hypotheses in an appropriate manner and admission of errors (principle of a scientific culture open to error).”
Data/Code sharing “The FAIR Guiding Principles for scientific data management and stewardship state that data must be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (Wilkinson et al. [49]). These guidelines put specific emphasis on enhancing the ability of machines to automatically find and use the data, in addition to supporting its reuse by individuals.” “The <city> Open Science programme of <city> has set itself the goal of making the research results and data of research institutions in <city>, which were created with funds from government research funding, freely accessible and easy to find together with other information on science in <city >.”
“Scientists at <university> are encouraged to publish and store raw research data that served as the basis for publications, together with the associated materials and information, in recognised open-access subject repositories in accordance with the FAIR principles (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable), insofar as this is in conformity with the applicable legal provisions on data protection and copyright and with planned patent applications.”
“Self-programmed software is made publicly available with indication of the source code.”
Open access “ <Institutions> will […] establish an “Open access” and “Open Data” culture […].” “To promote the OA [open access] publishing activities of scientists affiliated with the <university>, the Dean's Office of the Faculty of Medicine has been providing a publication fund from central funds since the beginning of 2020, from which the APCs [article processing charges] for OA publications (original work, review articles) in journals with an impact factor (IF) above 10 are financed.”
“Publications in high-ranking open-access journals are supported by the faculty by covering 50% of the costs. Publications can be made free of charge with individual Open Access publishers.”
“Therefore, the Presidential Board recommends […] to archive their scientific publications as a matter of principle as pre- or post-print on a subject repository or on the institutional repository of <university>, and/or to publish them in peer-reviewed open-access journals, and to reserve the right to publish or archive their research results electronically in publishing contracts, if possible. In doing so, the freedom of research and teaching is preserved. Discipline-specific practices and rights of use of publishers are to be taken into account in a differentiated manner.”
“For a scientific qualification work, e.g., cumulative dissertations or post-doctoral theses, which have appeared in a journal as a published article, permission for second publication must be obtained in any case”
Robustness “Biometric study planning and analysis includes the following: […] power calculation […] implementation of randomisation”
“The biometric consultation hour is an internal service of the CRU for members of the hospital and the medical faculty of the <university>. The biometric consultation hour provides information on questions of study design, sample size planning and the choice of suitable evaluation methods.”
“Important tasks of biometrics in clinical trials are power calculation, randomisation”
“Online randomisation service”
“The course is aimed at postdocs and scientists who write and/or plan their own animal research applications. In particular, the course will consider what requirements a biometric report must meet in order to satisfy the authorities’ specifications and how this can be achieved. Special attention will be given to power analysis, study design, and sample size calculation.”
“Experimental animal science links and information resources: […]
G*Power (freeware for the analysis of test power)”
The number of test animals is reduced to a minimum. This is achieved by an optimised experimental design, in which it is clarified statistically and methodically in advance how many animals are necessary for an evaluable result.”