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Table 1 Summary of article characteristics

From: Strategies to adapt and implement health system guidelines and recommendations: a scoping review

Year Author(s) Country (income bracket) Funded by Study methods Study population Study setting Quality appraisal
2008 Amaral et al. [82] Brazil (upper-middle-income) Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Cross-sectional ecological study Healthcare professionals, health system organization, family and community practice Municipalities with a population between 5000 and 50,000 inhabitants 100% (high)
2011 Blanco-Mancilla [84] Mexico (upper-middle-income) Not reported Qualitative Medical professionals who interact with service users or patients Hospitals and health centres 100% (high)
2007 Leethongdee [83] Thailand (upper-middle-income) Royal Thai Government
Office of Educational Affairs (Kor-Por London)
Civil Service Commission Office (Kor-Por Thailand)
Qualitative Personnel who worked in the public healthcare system overseen by the ministry of health Public health 100% (high)
2018 Zakumumpa et al. [85] Uganda (low-income) Consortium for Advanced Research Training in Africa (CARTA)
Wellcome Trust (United Kingdom)
Department for International Development (DFID)
Carnegie Corporation of New York
Ford Foundation
MacArthur Foundation
Mixed-methods sequential explanatory Heads of the ART clinic, head nurses, HR managers, clinicians, finance managers, strategy directors Various health facilities in peri-urban settings or urbanized parts of rural areas 100% (high)
2020 Miguel-Esponda et al. [69] Mexico (upper-middle-income) No financial support received Mixed-methods convergent study design Service users registered in the health information system (HIS) Ten rural primary healthcare (PHC) clinics supported by CES [Compañeros En Salud] 93% (high)
2020 Callaghan-Koru et al. [86] Bangladesh (lower-middle-income) United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Qualitative case study Mothers with children giving birth In hospital setting—birthing units 90% (high)
2020 Mutabazi et al. [87] Sub-Saharan Africa (low-income) Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR) (Canada)
Integrated Intervention for Diabetes Risk after Gestational Diabetes in South Africa (IINDIAGO) (South Africa)
Descriptive qualitative study Pregnant women, women in labour/delivery and breastfeeding, frontline workers Public health facilities 90% (high)
2018 Saddi et al. [88] Brazil (upper-middle-income) Graduate Studies Coordination Board (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel [CAPES])
Brazilian Ministry of Education
Federal University of Goiás (UFG) Office of the Dean of Extension and Research
Contingent mixed-methods approach Frontline health workers; managers, nurses Healthcare units in Goiânia; primary care setting 86% (high)
2015 Xia et al. [89] China (upper-middle-income) Centre for Environment and Population Health (Griffth University) Mixed methods Pregnant women service users Maternal and child healthcare hospitals 86% (high)
2014 Armstrong et al. [90] Tanzania (lower-middle-income) Evidence for Action Tanzania Qualitative Healthcare professionals, health system coordinators, district, region and zonal health administrators One regional referral hospital, one government district hospital and one faith-based district hospital 80% (high)
2011 Ditlopo et al. [91] South Africa (upper-middle-income) Irish Aid Qualitative case study design Policy-makers, hospital managers, nurses and doctors Predominantly district rural hospitals 80% (high)
2017 Doherty et al. [92] Uganda (low-income) Swedish and Norwegian government agencies
South African Medical Research Council
Descriptive qualitative Implementation partners, Ministry of Health, multilateral agencies (UNICEF and WHO), district management, community- and facility-based health workers All four regions of the country 80% (high)
2019 Lovero et al. [93] South Africa (upper-middle-income) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Wainberg/Arbuckle Training Grant
United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)
Mixed-methods exploratory design District-level programme managers (DPMs) Urban and rural primary care clinics throughout district 80% (high)
2014 Mkoka et al. [94] Tanzania (lower-middle-income) Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) Qualitative approach District medical officer (DMO), district nursing officer (DNO), district health officer (DHO), district health secretary (DHS), and district pharmacist (DP) A typical rural district 80% (high)
2016 Moshiri et al. [95] Iran (upper-middle-income) School of Public Health Research Deputy of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) Qualitative Designers of public health facilities, provincial health managers, community health workers and two former health ministers Rural healthcare facilities 80% (high)
2020 Muthathi et al. [96] South Africa (upper-middle-income) South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARChI)
Department of Science and Innovation (South Africa)
National Research Foundation (South Africa)
Atlantic Philanthropies
Nested qualitative study Health policy actors: national government, provincial government head office, district, subdistrict and local government Urban and rural provinces 80% (high)
2017 Schneider and Nxumalo [97] South Africa (upper-middle-income) Canadian International Development Research Centre (IDRC)
Funded through a variety of other mechanisms that were not reported
Qualitative case study Community health Community care, primary care clinics 80% (high)
2010 Sheikh et al. [98] India (lower-middle-income) Aga Khan Foundation’s International Scholarship Programme
DFID TARGETS Consortium at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM)
University of London Central Research Fund
Qualitative case study Public health authorities, hospital administrators, medical practitioners Public health facilities
Private health
80% (high)
2016 Shelley et al. [99] East Africa (lower-middle-income) DFID (United Kingdom) Qualitative approach Healthcare workers Rural community healthcare 80% (high)
2019 Zhou et al. [67] China (upper-middle-income) China Medical Board
China Postdoctoral Science Foundation
Central South University Post-Doctoral Science Foundation
Mixed methods Senior leaders, department directors from a town hospital, family members of patients Liuyang Mental Health Prevention and Treatment Center (MHC) 80% (high)
2018 Carneiro et al. [100] Brazil (upper-middle-income) Not reported Cross-sectional quantitative descriptive Physicians Isolated primary care facilities in Marajó 75% (high)
2014 Costa et al. [101] Brazil (upper-middle-income) No financial support received Cross-sectional evaluative quantitative study Doctors completing home visits and nurses providing individual care Municipalities within Brazil 75% (high)
2018 Sami et al. [102] South Sudan, Africa (low-income) Save the Children’s Saving Newborn Lives programme
ELMA Relief Foundation
Mixed-methods case study Newborns and mothers Community/facility-based settings including PHC centre, community health programme centres, hospital and camps 73% (high)
2015 Febir eta al. [103] Ghana (lower-middle-income) Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
ACT [artemisinin-based combination treatment] Consortium
Qualitative study Healthcare workers District hospital, health centres and community-based health services 70% (high)
2017 Pyone et al. [104] Kenya (lower-middle-income) DFID
Qualitative methods 10 national-level policy-makers, 10 county health officials and 19 healthcare providers 10 district- and county-level hospitals and other health facilities in selected counties 70% (high)
2020 Rahman et al. [105] Bangladesh (lower-middle-income) GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) through PATH (Seattle, USA) Qualitative descriptive Key stakeholders, health service providers and caregivers At both the national and district levels of Khulna and Lakshmipur, specifically in two subdistrict public healthcare facilities 70% (high)
2008 Stein et al. [106] South Africa (upper-middle-income) IDRC (Canada) Qualitative methods PHC nurses Urban and rural PHC settings 70% (high)
2017 Bergerot et al. [79] Brazil (upper-middle-income) Not reported Mixed methods Psychologists and oncology staff; patients aged 18 or older, with cancer treatment plan Hospitals and cancer centres from different Brazilian cities 66.66% (medium)
2010 Halpern et al. [77] Guyana (upper-middle-income) Not reported Cross-sectional Doctors, nurses and data entry clerks from each care and treatment site Clinics across the nation 62.50% (medium)
2020 Ejeta et al. [107] Ethiopia (low-income) Not reported Qualitative descriptive Three hospitals in Ethiopia
Families within
The health facility sites located in Addis Ababa, Bishoftu and Hawassa 60% (medium)
2016 Smith Gueye et al. [108] Bhutan, Mauritius, Namibia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Turkey and Turkmenistan (low-, middle- and upper-middle-income) Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Malaria Elimination Initiative of the Global Health Group (USA)
Qualitative case study review Healthcare and programme staff Mostly in decentralized health systems 60% (medium)
2020 Ryan et al. [109] Nigeria (lower-middle-income) CBM Consultancy (Australian Government department)
Comprehensive Community Mental Health Programme (CCMHP)’s monitoring and evaluation budget
Mixed-methods manualized case study Project coordinator, community mental health project officer, self-help group, development project officer and six community psychiatric nurses Urban and semi-urban mental health clinics (some rural) 60% (medium)
2017 Andrade et al. [75] Brazil (upper-middle-income) Not reported Cross-sectional observational case study Pregnant women or women with children under 2, suffering from chronic conditions and/or diabetes and hypertension Primary and secondary healthcare 50% (medium)
2014 Roman et al. [66] Africa (lower-middle-income) USAID Qualitative observational case study Pregnant women in Africa Health system area 50% (medium)
2016 Investigators of WHO Low Birth Weight (LBW) Feeding Study Group [110] India (lower-middle-income) WHO (Geneva) Mixed-methods before-and-after study Healthcare practitioners and parents of LBW babies First-referral-level health facilities 33% (low)
2016 Lavôr et al. [111] Brazil (upper-middle-income) Not reported Mixed-methods multiple-case study Nurses Basic health units and four outpatient clinics, called specialty polyclinics 27% (low)
2005 Bryce et al. [58] Bangladesh, Brazil, Peru, Tanzania, Uganda (lower-middle-income) Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Mixed methods Health facilities with or without integrated management of childhood illness Health facilities 20% (low)
2018 Kihembo et al. [57] Uganda (lower-middle-income) DFID
Continuum of Care for Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Adolescent and Child Health (RMANCH)
Global Polio Eradication Initiative
United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF)
WHO (Uganda)
Qualitative descriptive study Health workforce District- and regional-level referral hospitals 20% (low)
2015 Li et al. [112] China (upper-middle-income) Law Department of National Health and Family Planning Committee
Jinan Science & Technology Planning Project
Mixed-methods field observation Personnel of the health department of Shandong Province and health departments, directors, medical personnel of township hospitals Six township hospitals and three village clinics 6.60% (low)
2015 Wingfield et al. [113] Peru (upper-middle-income) Wellcome Trust
Innovation for Health and Development (FHAD) and the Joint Global Health Trials Consortium of the Wellcome Trust
United Kingdom Medical Research Council
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
British Infection Association
Imperial College Centre for Global Health Research
Mixed methods Project team, project participants, civil society and stakeholders Two suburbs of Peru’s capital, Lima 6.60% (low)
2018 Kavle et al. [114] Kenya (lower-middle-income) USAID Qualitative Mothers Community care health facilities 0% (low)