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Identifying and characterising health policy and system-relevant documents in Uganda: a scoping review to develop a framework for the development of a one-stop shop

  • Boniface Mutatina1Email author,
  • Robert Basaza1, 2,
  • Ekwaro Obuku1, 5,
  • John N. Lavis3, 4 and
  • Nelson Sewankambo1
Contributed equally
Health Research Policy and Systems201715:7

DOI: 10.1186/s12961-017-0170-3

Received: 7 December 2016

Accepted: 16 January 2017

Published: 6 February 2017

Abstract

Background

Health policymakers in low- and middle-income countries continue to face difficulties in accessing and using research evidence for decision-making. This study aimed to identify and provide a refined categorisation of the policy documents necessary for building the content of a one-stop shop for documents relevant to health policy and systems in Uganda. The on-line resource is to facilitate timely access to well-packaged evidence for decision-making.

Methods

We conducted a scoping review of Uganda-specific, health policy, and systems-relevant documents produced between 2000 and 2014. Our methods borrowed heavily from the 2005 Arksey and O’Malley approach for scoping reviews and involved five steps, which that include identification of the research question; identification of relevant documents; screening and selection of the documents; charting of the data; and collating, summarising and reporting results. We searched for the documents from websites of relevant government institutions, non-governmental organisations, health professional councils and associations, religious medical bureaus and research networks. We presented the review findings as numerical analyses of the volume and nature of documents and trends over time in the form of tables and charts.

Results

We identified a total of 265 documents including policies, strategies, plans, guidelines, rapid response summaries, evidence briefs for policy, and dialogue reports. The top three clusters of national priority areas addressed in the documents were governance, coordination, monitoring and evaluation (28%); disease prevention, mitigation, and control (23%); and health education, promotion, environmental health and nutrition (15%). The least addressed were curative, palliative care, rehabilitative services and health infrastructure, each addressed in three documents (1%), and early childhood development in one document. The volume of documents increased over the past 15 years; however, the distribution of the different document types over time has not been uniform.

Conclusion

The review findings are necessary for mobilising and packaging the local policy-relevant documents in Uganda in a one-stop shop; where policymakers could easily access them to address pressing questions about the health system and interventions. The different types of available documents and the national priority areas covered provide a good basis for building and organising the content in a meaningful way for the resource.

Keywords

Evidence-informed policy Health policy and system documents Framework Clearinghouse Uganda Low- and middle-income countries

Background

Linking health research evidence to action is one of the many important components of national and global responses to contemporary public health challenges [1, 2]. It is important for both making evidence-informed policies1 and decisions2 on health services and improving the health systems within which the interventions and services are provided [3]. When policies and decisions are made without considering the best available evidence, it may waste resources and opportunities, and possibly do more harm than good [4]. In the recent past, there has been a strong emphasis worldwide on reflecting the best available evidence in health policies and decisions [2, 5]. However, more evidence may not necessarily mean better policies [6, 7]. Greenhalgh et al. [7] notes that a better policy is what is appropriate in the circumstances in agreement with the overall desirable goal. Research evidence is one of the necessary inputs into policymaking, which may also be influenced by context and other factors [8].

Linking research to action in low- and middle-income countries has remained a challenge, despite the international attention and significant efforts to address it [3, 9]. Health policymakers3 and stakeholders4 continue to face difficulties in accessing and using research evidence for policy and decision-making [10]. They are often unable to rapidly identify decision-relevant information when pressing issues emerge, partly due to the lack of one-stop shops with optimally packaged evidence [11]. By making evidence available, a one-stop shop becomes one of the necessary inputs for increasing access to evidence. Although it may not be a sufficient factor, its absence creates a clear gap and thus a barrier to use of evidence by policy and decision-makers [11]. The one-stop shop may facilitate timely access to well-packaged evidence by policy and decision-makers when faced with questions about health systems and interventions [12]. In a systematic review on health policymakers’ perceptions of their use of evidence, Innvaer et al. [10] identified timely access to evidence as one of the facilitators of use of evidence in policymaking. This is corroborated by Lavis et al. [11] and further supported by Oliver et al. [13] in an updated systematic review. The latter included perceptions of other stakeholder groups such as researchers, managers and research users other than policymakers [13].

In the recent past, there have been efforts to develop one-stop shops for both global research evidence and local policy-relevant documents to address questions about health interventions and health systems in high-income countries. Examples include The Cochrane Library, Health Systems Evidence, NHS Library and Knowledge Center and HTA Database Canada Search Interface [1417]. On the other hand, resources focused on local policy-relevant documents are lacking in low- and middle-income countries and the feasibility of developing them has not been tested.

To address this challenge in Uganda, in 2011, the Supporting the Use of Research Evidence (SURE) in African health systems project [18] embarked on developing the Uganda Clearinghouse for Health Policy and Systems – a one-stop shop for health policy-relevant documents. The SURE project was a collaborative project that built on and supported Evidence-Informed Policy Networks (EVIPNets) in Africa and the Regional East Africa Community Health (REACH) Policy Initiative in Uganda specifically. EVIPNet Africa includes African partners such as Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central Africa Republic, Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Zambia [19].

This Clearinghouse is intended to facilitate timely access to decision-relevant information required by policymakers, stakeholders and researchers about the Ugandan health system and interventions. However, this resource could be limited by the adequacy of its content and the way it is organised. There is a lack of documented evidence on the available Uganda-specific health policy and systems-relevant documents that would inform whether most of the important documents have been included in the clearinghouse. Further, there is no clear framework to guide the organisation of the documents in the clearinghouse.

This paper provides a scoping review of Uganda-specific health policy and systems-relevant documents produced in the last 15 years, up to December 2014. It is a step forward towards the mobilisation of documents for improving the Uganda Clearinghouse for Health Policy and Systems. The paper also identifies and provides a refined categorisation of the policy-relevant documents necessary for building the content of the clearinghouse to facilitate easy search by the users. The purpose of this paper is not just to indicate the ideal content of the Clearinghouse but to demonstrate that it is doable in a low-income setting. It aims to provide a framework which one can follow explicitly to generate an inventory of policy-relevant documents.

Methods

We reviewed published documents relevant for health policy and decision-making about the Uganda health system and interventions produced from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2014. The year 2000 marked the beginning of implementation of key health sector reforms in Uganda [20]. Of interest was to identify and characterise documents produced since then to the beginning of this study. Our methods borrowed heavily from the 2005 Arksey and O’Malley methodological framework for scoping reviews [21].

Step 1: Identification of the research question

Since the research question guides the subsequent steps, including the search strategy, the Arksey and O’Malley methodological framework recommends considering all aspects of the research area to ensure a breadth of coverage and to define the relevant aspects of the research question [21]. In light of this, we developed our research questions as: What are the available types of documents relevant for health policy and systems that are specific to Uganda? What is the volume and nature (i.e. type, coverage of national priority areas, frequency of health-system topics) of these documents? From the onset, we were aware that such documents could be available as printed copies, published on websites of relevant non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and national institutions or just in the form of soft copies on personal computers that are not yet uploaded on websites. We focused on identifying and characterising the available documents relevant for health policy and systems published on websites.

Step 2: Identification of relevant documents

We conducted the search for Uganda-specific health policy and systems-relevant documents in January 2015. We selected the websites of relevant government institutions, international and national NGOs, health professional councils and associations, religious medical bureaus and research networks (Table 1). We used the search engine Google to locate such websites, which we then navigated by the tabs and menus available on the homepage (such as policy documents and guidelines, e-library, resources, publications, legislation). The fact that different websites are organised differently, we developed specific search strategies for each website depending on its individual navigability. In addition, we searched Google Scholar using the following keywords in various combinations with Boolean operators (and, or) [22]: Uganda, health policy, health system, guidelines, strategies, plans, and reports. We checked the reference lists of the documents found to expand our list of included documents. Importantly, we used the websites as an entry point to other repositories for national policy documents (Tables 2 and 3).
Table 1

Institutions/organisations whose websites were searched

Institution/Organisation

Website

International Organisations

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/countries/uganda/

2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/index/en/?iso3=UGA

3. GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance

http://www.gavi.org/

4. ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cancer

http://www.hpvcentre.net/

5. United Nations Children’s Fund

http://www.unicef.org/uganda/

6. United Nations Population Fund

http://countryoffice.unfpa.org/uganda/

7. United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS

http://www.unaids.org/en/regionscountries/countries/uganda

8. United States Agency for International Development

https://www.usaid.gov/uganda

9. World Bank

http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/uganda

10. World Health Organization (WHO)

http://www.who.int/countries/uga/en/

Uganda Government Institutions

1. Health Service Commission 2. Ministry of Agriculture

http://www.hsc.go.ug/ http://www.agriculture.go.ug/

3. Ministry of Education and Sports

http://www.education.go.ug/

4. Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development

http://www.finance.go.ug/

5. Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development

http://www.mglsd.go.ug/

6. Ministry of Health

http://www.health.go.ug/

7. National Council for Science and Technology

http://www.uncst.go.ug/

8. National planning authority

http://npa.ug/

9. Office of the Prime Minister

http://www.opm.go.ug/

10. Parliament of Uganda

http://www.parliament.go.ug/new/

11. Uganda AIDS Commission

http://www.aidsuganda.org/

12. Uganda Bureau of Statistics

http://www.ubos.org/UNHS0910/home.html

13. Uganda Population Secretariat

http://popsec.org/

Locally Registered Non-Governmental Organizations

1. Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation

2. Family Health International

http://www.pedaids.org/countries/uganda http://www.fhi360.org/countries/uganda

3. HEPS-Uganda

http://www.heps.or.ug/

4. Infectious Diseases Institute

http://www.idi-makerere.com/

5. Integrated Community Based Initiatives

http://www.icobi.or.ug/

6. Joint Clinical Research Center

http://www.jcrc.org.ug/

7. Plan International

https://plan-international.org/uganda

8. Population Reference Bureau

http://www.prb.org/Countries/Uganda.aspx

9. The AIDs Support Organization (TASO)

http://tasouganda.org/

10. Uganda Community Based Health-Financing Association

http://ucbhfa.org/

11. Uganda Women’s Network

http://uwonet.or.ug/

12. Women’s International Cross Cultural Exchange

http://www.isis.or.ug/

Health Professional Councils And Associations

1. Allied Health Practitioners Council

http://www.ahpc.ug/

2. Association of Surgeons and Association of Gynecologists and Obstetricians of Uganda

http://sogc.org/aogu/

3. Pharmaceutical society of Uganda

http://psu.or.ug/new/

4. Uganda Dental Association

http://www.ugadent.org/

5. Uganda Health Care Federation

http://ugandahealthcarefederation.blogspot.ug/

6. Uganda Medical Association

http://www.uma.co.ug/

7. Uganda Medical and Dental Practitioner Health Council

http://www.umdpc.com/

8. Uganda Nurses and Midwives Council

http://unmc.ug/

Religious Medical Bureaus

1. Uganda Catholic Medical Bureau

http://www.ucmb.co.ug/

2. Uganda Protestant Medical Bureau

http://upmb.co.ug/

Academic Institutions/Research Networks

1. EVIPNet

http://global.evipnet.org/

2. Makerere University School of Public Health

http://www.musph.ac.ug/

3. Uganda National Academy of Sciences

http://ugandanationalacademy.org/

Table 2

Type of documents mapped by the national health priority areas

National health priority areasa

Type of document

Policy (n = 33, 13%)

Strategy (n = 10, 4%)

Plan (n = 25, 9%)

Guidelines (n = 35, 13%)

Evidence brief for policy (n = 33, 13%)

Policy dialogue report (n = 7, 3%)

Rapid response summary (n = 47, 18%)

Other report (n = 75, 28%)

Total (N = 265)

Governance, coordination and monitoring and evaluation

1 (3%)

1 (10%)

9 (36%)

10 (29%)

6 (18%)

0

11 (23%)

36 (48%)

74 (28%)

Disease prevention, mitigation and control

15 (46%)

0

5 (20%)

11 (31%)

6 (18%)

2 (29%)

7 (15%)

17 (23%)

63 (24%)

Health education, promotion, environmental health and nutrition

5 (15%)

9 (90%)

5 (20%)

7 (20%)

3 (9%)

1 (14%)

8 (17%)

3 (4%)

41 (16%)

Maternal and child health

0

0

3 (12%)

2 (6%)

3 (9%)

1 (14%)

2 (4%)

3 (4%)

14 (5%)

Health financing

0

0

0

0

3 (9%)

0

6 (13%)

4 (5%)

13 (5%)

Health human resource

0

0

0

2 (6%)

1 (3%)

1 (14%)

3 (6%)

5 (7%)

12 (5%)

Essential medicines and supplies

2 (6.1%)

0

1 (4%)

0

3 (9.1%)

0

3 (6.4%)

2 (2.7%)

11 (4%)

Reproductive health

0

0

0

2 (5.7%)

3 (9%)

0

1 (2%)

0

6 (2%)

Early childhood development

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1 (1%)

1 (1%)

Curative services

1 (3%)

0

0

0

1 (3%)

0

1 (2%)

0

3 (1%)

Health infrastructure

1 (3%)

0

0

1 (3%)

0

0

1 (2%)

0

3 (1%)

Palliative care services

0

0

0

0

1 (3%)

0

2 (4%)

0

3 (1%)

Rehabilitation services

1 (3%)

0

0

0

0

0

1 (2%)

1 (1%)

3 (1%)

Others

7 (21%)

0

2 (8%)

0

3 (9%)

2 (29%)

1 (2%)

3 (4%)

18 (7%)

aNational health priority areas in the Second National Development Plan II (2015/16–2019/2020) & Second National Health Policy (18)

Table 3

Type of the document by health systems domains, implementation strategy within the health systems and the crosscutting domain (10)

Health systems domains

Policy (n = 33, 13%)

Strategy (n = 10, 4%)

Plan (n = 25, 9%)

Guidelines (n = 35, 13%)

Evidence brief for policy (n = 33, 13%)

Policy dialogue report (n = 7, 3%)

Rapid response summary (n = 47, 18%)

Other report (n = 75, 28%)

Total (N = 265)

Delivery arrangements

0

0

1 (4%)

5 (14%)

11 (33%)

2 (29%)

12 (26%)

70 (93%)

101 (38%)

Governance arrangements

16 (49%)

0

0

22 (63%)

13 (39%)

2 (29%)

14 (30%)

1 (1%)

68 (26%)

Implementation strategies

0

10 (100%)

24 (96%)

5 (14%)

5 (15%)

1 (14%)

11 (23%)

0

56 (21%)

Financial arrangements

0

0

0

0

4 (12%)

0

8 (17%)

4 (5%)

16 (6%)

Othersa

17 (52%)

0

0

3 (9%)

0

2 (29%)

2 (4%)

0

24 (9%)

aOthers include documents about public or population issues and clinical issues

Step 3: Screening and selection of relevant documents

To minimise selection bias, two independent reviewers (BM and RB) screened all documents and selected those that were appropriate for our research question. Our selection involved the use of a pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We included all Uganda-specific published documents relevant to health policy and systems produced between 2000 and 2014. We borrowed from the Hoffman et al. [23] model shown in Fig. 1, which depicts the boundaries of health policy and systems research, to determine if documents were relevant to health policy and systems in order for us to include them. We therefore included all documents that addressed (1) issues related to health systems (i.e. on governance, financial, and delivery arrangements and implementation strategies); (2) policy about clinical issues that include essential medicines, diagnostics and medical supplies; and (3) policy about public/population issues such as policies on immunisation and family planning.
Fig. 1

Conceptual issues related to health systems research to inform a WHO Global Strategy on Health Systems Research. Adapted with permission from Hoffman et al. [20]

We excluded documents that (1) did not have national coverage (such as NGO project reports that covered only a few districts), (2) were at the draft stage, (3) covered less than a year (such as quarterly or semi-annual reports), or (4) described primary studies and systematic reviews.

Step 4: Charting of the data

The two independent reviewers used a specially developed data-charting form (Table 4) to extract data from each document on the title/topic, document type, coverage of national priority areas, coverage of health system topics, year published and the source of the document. We developed a tailored index of health policy documents based on the national priority issues, types of documents emerging from the search results and health system topics borrowed from the Health System Evidence [15, 24, 25]. We specifically categorised the documents as policies, strategies, plans, guidelines, rapid response summaries, and evidence briefs for policy, dialogue reports and other reports. We also coded the documents for national health priority areas as identified in the Second National Development Plan (NDPII 2015/16–2019/20) [24] and Second Health Policy (NHPII) [25]. The NDPII stipulates the Country’s medium term strategic direction, priorities (including health priorities) and implementation strategies up to the year 2020. The national health priority areas are disease prevention, mitigation and control; health education, promotion, environmental health and nutrition; governance, coordination, monitoring and evaluation; maternal and child health; reproductive health; human resources for health; health financing; health infrastructure; early childhood development; essential medicines and supplies; palliative care services; rehabilitation services; and curative services [24, 25].
Table 4

Documents reviewed

S/N

Title

Type of document

National health priority area

Health systems domains

Year

Source of the document

1

The Uganda Tuberculosis Communication Strategy

Strategy

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2008

Ministry of Health

2

National Couples HIV Counseling & Testing Communication Strategy

Strategy

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2009

Ministry of Health

3

Nutrition in the National Child Survival Strategy

Strategy

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2009

Ministry of Health

4

Uganda National Communication Strategy for Promoting Rational Use of Medicines

Strategy

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2009

Ministry of Health

5

National Positive Living Communication Strategy

Strategy

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2010

Ministry of Health

6

Pediatric HIV Communication Campaign Strategy

Strategy

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2010

Ministry of Health

7

Integrating Population, Health and Environment in Uganda

Strategy

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2009

Population Reference Bureau

8

The National Advocacy Strategy 2013–2022

Strategy

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2013

Uganda Population Secretariat

9

WHO Country Cooperation Strategy

Strategy

Governance, coordination & M&E

Implementation strategies

2009

World Health Organization

10

National Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage Strategies and Integrated Household Environmental Health Interventions

Strategy

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2011

World Health Organization

11

Cost Effectiveness of Malaria Control Programmes in Uganda: The Case Study of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spraying

Report

Health financing

Financial arrangements

2011

Economic Policy Research Centre – Makerere University Kampala

12

Situation Analysis to Determine the Acceptability and Feasibility of Male Circumcision Promotion in Uganda

Report

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Delivery arrangements

2007

Family Health International

13

The Analysis of the Nutrition Situation in Uganda

Report

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Delivery arrangements

2010

FHI 360

14

Food and Nutrition Report

Report

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Delivery arrangements

2013

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

15

GAVI Alliance Progress Report for Uganda, 2007

Report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2007

GAVI Alliance

16

Annual Report on Work in Crises in Uganda

Report

Human resources for health

Delivery arrangements

2007

Health Action in Crisis (HAC)

17

Accessibility of Essential Medicines and Diagnostics in Uganda

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2014

HEPS Uganda

18

Health Reforms in Uganda

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2006

Institute of Public Health, Makerere University, Ministry of Health

19

Millennium Development Goals, Progress Report

Report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2013

Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development

20

The State of Uganda Population

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2013

Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development

21

Millennium Development Goals, Progress Report

Report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2010

Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development

22

National Health Accounts Report

Report

Health financing

Financial arrangements

2008

Ministry of Health

23

Health Financing Review

Report

Health financing

Financial arrangements

2010

Ministry of Health

24

Final Report Essential Medicines and Health Supplies Tracking Study

Report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2009

Ministry of Health

25

Report Malaria Indicator Survey

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2009

Ministry of Health

26

Situation Analysis Village Health Teams Uganda 2009

Report

Human resources for health

Delivery arrangements

2009

Ministry of Health

27

Status of Antiretroviral Therapy Service Delivery in Uganda

Report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2010

Ministry of Health

28

HIV Sero Behavioral Survey in Fishing Communities of the Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda

Report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2011

Ministry of Health

29

Uganda Malaria Country profile

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2011

Ministry of Health

30

Annual Health Sector Performance Report

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2013

Ministry of Health

31

National Performance Report

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2013

Ministry of Health

32

Mid Term Review of the 2010–2015 Malaria Strategic Plan

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2014

National Malaria Control Programme

33

Gender Responsive Indicators for Sectors – Final Report

Report

Others

Delivery arrangements

2012

National Planning Authority

34

HPV Vaccination in Africa: Lessons Learned from a Pilot Program in Uganda

Report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2000

PATH

35

National Capacity Assessment of Public and Private Institutions Involved in HIV/AIDS Service Delivery

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2009

Uganda AIDS Commission

36

PLHIV Sigma Index Report – Uganda Country Assessment 2013–1

Report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2013

Uganda AIDS Commission

37

Uganda HIV Country Progress Report, 2013

Report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2013

Uganda AIDS Commission

38

High PMTCT Program Uptake and Coverage of Mothers, Their Partners, and Babies in Northern Uganda: Achievements and Lessons Learned Over 10 Years of Implementation (2002–2011)

Report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2014

Uganda AIDS Commission

39

Progress in the Fight Against HIV and AIDS, 2014

Report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2014

Uganda AIDS Commission

40

Children and HIV/AIDS Key Statistics

Report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2002

Uganda AIDS Commission

41

Final Report for Midterm Evaluation of the Project Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Prevention Among Fishing Communities on Lakes George and Edward Project (CHAPFICO)

Report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2002

Uganda AIDS Commission

42

Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2000–2001

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2000

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

43

Uganda National Household Survey 2002/2003

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2002

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

44

Uganda HIV/AIDS Sero-behavioural Survey

Report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2004

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

45

Uganda National Household Survey 2005/2006

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2005

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

46

A Demographic and Health Survey 2006

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2006

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

47

Uganda Bureau of Statistics Annual Report 2008/2009

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2008

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

48

Uganda – Gender Based Violence Survey, 2009

Report

Others

Delivery arrangements

2009

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

49

Uganda Bureau of Statistics Annual Report 2009/2010

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2009

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

50

Uganda National Household Survey

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2009

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

51

Uganda National Household Survey 2009/2010

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2009

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

52

UNHS 2009/2010 Socio-Economic Report

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2009

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

53

Uganda Bureau of Statistics Annual Report 2010/2011

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2010

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

54

Uganda Bureau of Statistics Annual Report 2011/2012

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2011

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

55

Uganda Demographic and Health Survey

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2011

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

56

Statistical Abstract – A Summary on Various Socio-Economic Indicators in Uganda

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2012

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

57

Uganda Bureau of Statistics Annual Report 2012/2013

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2012

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

58

Statistical Abstract – A Summary on Various Socio-Economic Indicators in Uganda

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2013

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

59

Report on Community Health Financing in Uganda

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2009

Uganda Community Based Health Financing Association

60

Health Service Commission Guidelines for the Recruitment of Health Workers in Districts and Urban Authorities 2005

Report

Human resources for health

Delivery arrangements

2005

Uganda Health Service Commission

61

Health Service Commission Annual Report 2008/2009

Report

Human resources for health

Delivery arrangements

2008

Uganda Health Service Commission

62

Health Service Commission Annual Report 2009–2010

Report

Human resources for health

Delivery arrangements

2009

Uganda Health Service Commission

63

Uganda Malaria Program review Report

Report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2001

Uganda Malaria Control Programme

64

The Status of Implementation of the Education Sector Early Childhood Development Policy in Uganda

Report

Early childhood development

Delivery arrangements

2012

Uganda Ministry of Education and Sports

65

State of Uganda Population Report 2006

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2006

Uganda Population Secretariat

66

State of Uganda Population Report 2007

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2007

Uganda Population Secretariat

67

State of Uganda Population Report 2008

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2008

Uganda Population Secretariat

68

State of Uganda Population Report 2009

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2009

Uganda Population Secretariat

69

State of Uganda Population Report 2010

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2010

Uganda Population Secretariat

70

State of Uganda Population Report 2011

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2011

Uganda Population Secretariat

71

State of Uganda Population Report 2013

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2013

Uganda Population Secretariat

72

International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) Beyond 2014 Review Uganda Country Report

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2014

Uganda Population Secretariat

73

State of Uganda Population Report 2014

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2014

Uganda Population Secretariat

74

HIV Prevention Response and Modes of Transmission Analysis – Uganda

Report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2009

UNAIDS

75

Uganda UNGASS Report for 2013

Report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2013

UNAIDS

76

State of Uganda Population report

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2010

UNFPA

77

UGANDA ANNUAL REPORT UNICEF

Report

Maternal and child health

Delivery arrangements

2006

UNICEF

78

UNICEF – Uganda 2012 Statement

Report

Maternal and child health

Delivery arrangements

2012

UNICEF

79

UNICEF Country Office Annual Report

Report

Maternal and child health

Delivery arrangements

2013

UNICEF

80

Situational Analysis on the Rights if Children with Disabilities in Uganda

Report

Rehabilitation services

Delivery arrangements

2014

UNICEF

81

Uganda Pharmaceutical Sector Report

Report

Essential medicines & supplies

Delivery arrangements

2010

USAID

82

Working Paper

Report

Health financing

Financial arrangements

2010

World bank

83

Uganda – Quantitative Service Delivery Survey in Health 2000

Report

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2000

World Bank

84

Well-Being of Older People Survey

Report

Others

Delivery arrangements

2009

World Health Organization

85

Report on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparation

Report

Essential medicines & supplies

Delivery arrangements

2014

World Health Organization

86

How Safe is the Practice of Reflexology?

Rapid response summary

Rehabilitation services

Governance arrangements

2010

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

87

What are the Best Methods for Involving Patients in Health System Decision-Making in Uganda?

Rapid response summary

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2010

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

88

What Does Policy Implementation Monitoring Entail?

Rapid response summary

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2010

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

89

Are Herbal Photolarvicides Efficient and Safe to Use in Vector Management?

Rapid response summary

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Governance arrangements

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

90

Can Decentralization of Health Services Improve Health Service Delivery in Uganda?

Rapid response summary

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

91

Does Introducing Deliveries at Health Center II Improve Maternal Outcomes?

Rapid response summary

Health infrastructure

Governance arrangements

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

92

Knowledge Management: How Can Policy Makers Improve the Use of Data in Policy Discussions and Development?

Rapid response summary

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

93

Monitoring of Medicines in Health Systems

Rapid response summary

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

94

Stem Cell Policies and Regulations Globally – An Overview of the Content and Context

Rapid response summary

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

95

What Are the Options for Re-Centralization of the Health Sector in Uganda?

Rapid response summary

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

96

What is Involved in the Efficient Relationship between the Ministry of Health and Teaching Hospitals in Order for both Institutions to Effectively Meet their Objectives?

Rapid response summary

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

97

What Role Can Regional Tear Play in Facilitating Health Service Delivery

Rapid response summary

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

98

What Risks May Food Vendors in Urban Areas Expose the Ugandan Population To?

Rapid response summary

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Governance arrangements

2012

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

99

Uganda EPI Vertical vs Integrated Approach

Rapid response summary

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2013

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

100

Cost Analysis Tool for Fistula Repair

Rapid response summary

Health financing

Financial arrangements

2010

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

101

Appropriate Health Financing Strategies for Uganda

Rapid response summary

Health financing

Financial arrangements

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

102

Diagnosis Cost of a New Sputum Smear Positive TB Case in Children in Low Income Countries

Rapid response summary

Health financing

Financial arrangements

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

103

Social Health Insurance & Improvement of Health Systems Organization and Utilization of Services

Rapid response summary

Health financing

Financial arrangements

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

104

Management of (Expensive) Medical Equipment; Lessons from Other Countries

Rapid response summary

Essential medicines & supplies

Financial arrangements

2012

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

105

Procurement of Medical Equipment Acquisition

Rapid response summary

Essential medicines & supplies

Financial arrangements

2012

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

106

How Effective are Financial Incentives for Attracting (and Retaining) Health Workers to Rural Areas in Uganda?

Rapid response summary

Health financing

Financial arrangements

2013

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

107

What are the Effective Options to Finance Private Not For Profit Health Units in Uganda?

Rapid response summary

Health financing

Financial arrangements

2013

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

108

Are Hospital-Based Emergency Medical Services Effective and Efficient?

Rapid response summary

Curative services

Delivery arrangements

2010

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

109

How Can Community Health Workers be used to Empower Communities?

Rapid response summary

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Delivery arrangements

2010

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

110

What is the Appropriate Malaria Treatment for a Low-Income Endemic Country like Uganda?

Rapid response summary

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2010

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

111

What Should be Included in an Optimal Package of Interventions to Prevent the Spread of HIV and Manage HIV/AIDS?

Rapid response summary

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2010

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

112

Dual Employment of Health Workers: Reasons and its Impact and What Steps the Gov’t Can Take?

Rapid response summary

Human resources for health

Delivery arrangements

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

113

Health Worker Migration: What is its Impact in the Source Country? What are the Different Strategies to Implement a Bilateral Government Agreement on Recruiting Professional Health Workers from Uganda?

Rapid response summary

Human resources for health

Delivery arrangements

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

114

Is there an Application of Herbal Medicines (esp. D. Erecta) in the Management of HIV/AIDS and Cancer?

Rapid response summary

Palliative care services

Delivery arrangements

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

115

What is the Role of Stem Cell Therapy in the Management of Non-Communicable Diseases? How Does it Work and What are its Implications on the Health System?

Rapid response summary

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

116

Arrangement Options for Accreditation of Health Service Providers in LMICs

Rapid response summary

Human resources for health

Delivery arrangements

2012

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

117

Pyrethroid Resistant Anopheles gambiae: Pyrethroid Impregnated or Synergistic LLINs?

Rapid response summary

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2012

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

118

What are the Effects of Clinical Pathways in Cancer Management?

Rapid response summary

Palliative care services

Delivery arrangements

2012

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

119

What are the Effective Pharmaceutical Interventions for Increasing Medicines Availability in Uganda?

Rapid response summary

Essential medicines & supplies

Delivery arrangements

2013

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

120

What are the Effects and Guidelines of Mass Immunization of Health Workers Against Hepatitis B?

Rapid response summary

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Implementation strategies

2010

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

121

How Applicable are the 2010 WHO Guidelines for Infant Feeding in the Context of HIV in LIC?

Rapid response summary

Maternal and child health

Implementation strategies

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

122

How Can the Sustainability of a Public Health (Food Fortification) Program be Ensured?

Rapid response summary

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

123

Is Mandatory Food Fortification an Efficient Strategy for the Alleviation of Micronutrient Deficiency?

Rapid response summary

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

124

National Policy Dialogue on the Transition and Sustainability of Public Health Nutrition Programs

Rapid response summary

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

125

What are the Different Strategies for Managing and Disposing of Medical Waste in Low-Income Countries?

Rapid response summary

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

126

What Guidelines are Present to Facilitate the Evaluation of a Natural Material Extract as a Larvicide?

Rapid response summary

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Implementation strategies

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

127

What Health System Strategies have Low and Middle Income Countries used to Improve their Maternal Outcomes?

Rapid response summary

Maternal and child health

Implementation strategies

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

128

What is the Effect of Counseling in Unwanted Pregnancy?

Rapid response summary

Reproductive health

Implementation strategies

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

129

What is the Evidence for the Effectiveness, Safety and Acceptability of ‘Ready-To-Use Feeds’?

Rapid response summary

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

130

What Strategies can Health Systems in Low-Income Settings Employ for Infection Control?

Rapid response summary

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Implementation strategies

2012

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

131

Research to Policy at the NTLP Uganda

Rapid response summary

Others

Other

2012

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

132

What are the Health Effects (Benefits and Risks) of Steam Baths (Saunas)?

Rapid response summary

Governance, coordination & M&E

Other

2012

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

133

Task Shifting for Health Workers in Maternal and Child Healthcare

Policy dialogue report

Human resources for health

Delivery arrangements

2010

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

134

Improving Access to Skilled Attendance at Delivery

Policy dialogue report

Maternal and child health

Delivery arrangements

2011

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

135

National Framework for Sustainability of Health Knowledge Translation Initiatives in Uganda

Policy dialogue report

Others

Other

2014

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

136

Mainstreaming Nutrition with Agriculture in Uganda: Role of Agriculture in Improving the Nutritional Status of Women and Children

Policy dialogue report

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Governance arrangements

2011

Uganda National Academy of Sciences

137

Establishing the Advisory Committee on Vaccines and Immunization

Policy dialogue report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Governance arrangements

2012

Uganda National Academy of Sciences

138

Preventing a Tobacco Epidemic in Africa. A Call For Effective Action to Support Health, Social, and Economic Development

Policy dialogue report

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Implementation strategies

2011

Uganda National Academy of Sciences

139

The Role of Science Academies in Generating Evidence-Based Advice for Effective Policy Decision Making: The Case of Climate Change (Hosted By The Uganda National Academy Of Sciences (UNAS), Hotel African, Kampala-Uganda, 11th–12th October, 2010)

Policy dialogue report

Others

Other

2010

Uganda National Academy of Sciences

140

Policy and Strategy for Insecticide Treated Nets

Policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Governance arrangements

2003

Malaria Control Programme

141

National Policy on HIV/AIDS and the World of Work

Policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Governance arrangements

2007

Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development

142

The National Youth Policy

Policy

Others

Governance arrangements

2001

Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development

143

National Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children Policy

Policy

Others

Governance arrangements

2004

Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development

144

The Occupational Safety and Health Act, 2007

Policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Other

2007

Ministry of Health

145

Antiretroviral Treatment Policy for Uganda

Policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Governance arrangements

2003

Ministry of Health

146

National Policy on Adolescent Health

Policy

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Governance arrangements

2004

Ministry of Health

147

National Environmental Health Policy

Policy

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Governance arrangements

2005

Ministry of Health

148

National Oral Health Policy

Policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Governance arrangements

2007

Ministry of Health

149

National Policy Public Private Partnership in Health

Policy

Others

Governance arrangements

2012

Ministry of Health

150

Uganda National Drug Policy

Policy

Essential medicines & supplies

Other

2002

Ministry of Health

151

National Anaemia Policy

Policy

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Other

2002

Ministry of Health

152

National Hospital Policy

Policy

Curative services

Other

2004

Ministry of Health

153

National Policy on Malaria Treatment

Policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Other

2005

Ministry of Health

154

National Policy on Public Health Sector Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)

Policy

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2013

Office of the Prime Minister

155

Animal Diseases (Selective Importation of Livestock, Livestock Products, Co-Products and By-Products) Regulations, 2003

Policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Other

2003

Parliament of Uganda

156

Electricity (Safety Code) Regulations, 2003

Policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Other

2003

Parliament of Uganda

157

The National Environment (Control of Smoking in Public Places) Regulations, 2004

Policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Other

2004

Parliament of Uganda

158

Births and Deaths Registration (Amendment) Regulations, 2005

Policy

Others

Other

2005

Parliament of Uganda

159

Agricultural Chemicals (Control) Act, 2006

Policy

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Other

2006

Parliament of Uganda

160

HIV and AIDS Prevention and Control Act, 2014

Policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Other

2014

Parliament of Uganda

161

Population Policy for Social Transformation and Sustainable Development

Policy

Others

Other

2009

Population Secretariat

162

The Uganda Food and Nutrition Policy

Policy

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Other

2003

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

163

Uganda HIV Counseling and Testing 3rd Policy Edition

Policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Other

2010

Uganda AIDS Commission

164

Safe Male Circumcision Policy

Policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Governance arrangements

2010

Uganda Bureau of Statistics

165

Uganda National Health Laboratory Service Policy

Policy

Health infrastructure

Governance arrangements

2009

Uganda Community Based Health Financing Association

166

Uganda National HIV/AIDS Policy

Policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Other

2011

Uganda Community Based Health Financing Association

167

National Biotechnology and Biosafety Policy, 2008

Policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Governance arrangements

2008

Uganda National Council for Science and Technology

168

National Science, Technology and Innovation Policy, 2009

Policy

Others

Governance arrangements

2009

Uganda National Council for Science and Technology

169

National Population Policy 2008

Policy

Others

Other

2008

Uganda Population Secretariat

170

National Policy on Disability

Policy

Rehabilitation services

Governance arrangements

2006

World Health Organization

171

National Policy on Traditional Medicine and Regulation of Herbal Medicines

Policy

Essential medicines & supplies

Other

2005

World Health Organization

172

Policy for the Reduction of the Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission in Uganda (2003)

Policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Governance arrangements

2003

Ministry of Health

173

Uganda Food And Nutrition Strategy And Investment Plan

Plan

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2004

Ministry of Agriculture

174

National Action Plan

Plan

Governance, coordination & M&E

Implementation strategies

2011

Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development

175

National Action Plan on Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Uganda

Plan

Maternal and child health

Implementation strategies

2012

Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development

176

Uganda Gender Action Plan

Plan

Others

Implementation strategies

2010

Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development

177

M&E for HSSIP 2010/11–2014/2015

Plan

Governance, coordination & M&E

Delivery arrangements

2011

Ministry of Health

178

National Malaria Action Plan

Plan

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Implementation strategies

2006

Ministry of Health

179

Roadmap for Accelerating the Reduction of Maternal and Neonatal Mortality and Morbidity

Plan

Maternal and child health

Implementation strategies

2007

Ministry of Health

180

Nutrition HIV Communication Strategy

Plan

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2009

Ministry of Health

181

Nutrition in the Context of HIV and TB

Plan

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2009

Ministry of Health

182

Health Sector Strategic and Investment Plan

Plan

Governance, coordination & M&E

Implementation strategies

2010

Ministry of Health

183

Health Sector Quality Improvement Strategic Plan & Framework

Plan

Governance, coordination & M&E

Implementation strategies

2011

Ministry of Health

184

Uganda Nutrition Action Plan

Plan

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2011

Ministry of Health

185

Uganda Malaria Control Strategic Plan 2005/06

Plan

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Implementation strategies

2005

National Malaria Control Programme

186

National Development Plan

Plan

Governance, coordination & M&E

Implementation strategies

2010

National Planning Authority

187

Uganda Vision 2040

Plan

Governance, coordination & M&E

Implementation strategies

2013

National Planning Authority

188

Pharmaceutical Society of Uganda Strategic Plan

Plan

Essential medicines & supplies

Implementation strategies

2013

Pharmaceutical Society of Uganda

189

The National Population Policy Action Plan

Plan

Governance, coordination & M&E

Implementation strategies

2011

Population Secretariat

190

National HIV & AIDS M&E Plan 2011/2–2014/15

Plan

Governance, coordination & M&E

Implementation strategies

2011

Uganda AIDS Commission

191

National Priority Action Plan

Plan

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Implementation strategies

2011

Uganda AIDS Commission

192

Uganda National Expanded Programme on Immunization Multi Year Plan 2010–2014

Plan

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2010

Uganda Expanded Programme on Immunisation

193

National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan 2012/2013–2017/2018

Plan

Others

Implementation strategies

2012

Uganda National Council for Science and Technology

194

UNEPI on Immunization Multi-Year Plan 2012–2016

Plan

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Implementation strategies

2012

Uganda National Expanded Programme on Immunisation

195

The Nation Population Policy Action Plan 2011–2015

Plan

Governance, coordination & M&E

Implementation strategies

2011

Uganda Population Secretariat

196

The Uganda National Plan of Action on Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation

Plan

Maternal and child health

Implementation strategies

2008

UNICEF

197

Malaria Operational Plan FY 2015

Plan

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Implementation strategies

2014

USAID

198

Guidelines on Recruitment of Health Workers in Districts and Urban Authorities

Guidelines

Human resources for health

Implementation strategies

2005

Health Service Commission

199

The Integrated National Guidelines on Antiretroviral Therapy Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV Infant & Young Child Feeding

Guidelines

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Governance arrangements

2012

Infectious Diseases Institute

200

Education & Sports Sector National Policy Guidelines on HIV/AIDS

Guidelines

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Implementation strategies

2006

Ministry of Education

201

Guidelines on Hospital Management Committees for District Hospitals

Guidelines

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2000

Ministry of Health

202

Uganda National Guidelines and Service Standard for Reproductive Health Services

Guidelines

Reproductive health

Governance arrangements

2001

Ministry of Health

203

Guidelines on Health Unit Management Committees for Health Centre 3

Guidelines

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2003

Ministry of Health

204

Health Planning Guidelines – Supplement to the Local Government Planning Process

Guidelines

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2007

Ministry of Health

205

National Guidelines

Guidelines

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Governance arrangements

2008

Ministry of Health

206

Patients’ Charter

Guidelines

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2009

Ministry of Health

207

National Clinical Guidelines

Guidelines

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Governance arrangements

2010

Ministry of Health

208

Policy Guidelines and Service Delivery Standards for Community Based Provision of Injectable Contraception in Uganda

Guidelines

Reproductive health

Governance arrangements

2010

Ministry of Health

209

Guidelines for Designation, Establishment and Upgrading of Health Units

Guidelines

Health infrastructure

Governance arrangements

2011

Ministry of Health

210

Implementation Guidelines for Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Malaria, Pneumonia and Diarrhea

Guidelines

Maternal and child health

Delivery arrangements

2000

Ministry of Health

211

Guidelines on Nutrition Survey Methodology in Uganda

Guidelines

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Delivery arrangements

2009

Ministry of Health

212

Nutritional Care and Support for People Living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda: Guidelines for Service Providers

Guidelines

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Delivery arrangements

2012

Ministry of Health

213

National Guidelines for Establishment and Scaling Up of VHTs

Guidelines

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2009

Ministry of Health

214

Guidelines for Establishing and Operating Couple’s Clubs

Guidelines

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2011

Ministry of Health

215

National Guidelines

Guidelines

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Implementation strategies

2013

Ministry of Health

216

Feeding Guidelines for People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Handbook for Field Extension Workers

Guidelines

Human resources for health

Governance arrangements

2002

Ministry of Health

217

Guide to Ideal Feeding Practices: For People with Increased Nutritional Needs, Care and Support

Guidelines

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Other

2002

Ministry of Health

218

The Local Government Development Planning Guidelines

Guidelines

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2014

National Planning Authority

219

Guidelines for Breast cancer

Guidelines

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Governance arrangements

2008

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

220

National Guidelines

Guidelines

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Governance arrangements

2009

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

221

National Guidelines for Maternal and Child Health

Guidelines

Maternal and child health

Governance arrangements

2010

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

222

National Implementation Guidelines for HIV Counseling and Testing in Uganda

Guidelines

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Governance arrangements

2010

Uganda AIDS Commission

223

Uganda Guidelines for AIDS Vaccine Research. A Guide for Vaccine Research, Development and Evaluation

Guidelines

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Other

2000

Uganda AIDS Commission

224

Uganda National Expended Programme on Immunisation Standards

Guidelines

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Governance arrangements

2003

Uganda Expanded Programme on Immunisation

225

Guidelines in Respect of Complaints against Medical and Dental Practitioners

Guidelines

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2002

Uganda Medical Practitioners Council

226

Guidelines and Standards for Accreditation of Continuing Professional Development for Health Workers

Guidelines

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2008

Uganda Medical Practitioners Council

227

National Guidelines on Bio-ethics

Guidelines

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2007

Uganda National Council for Science and Technology

228

National Guidelines for Field Trials of Genetically Engineered Plants

Guidelines

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2011

Uganda National Council for Science and Technology

229

Guidelines for Accreditation of Research Ethics Committees

Guidelines

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2014

Uganda National Council for Science and Technology

230

Treatment of Tuberculosis: Guidelines for National Programmes – 3rd Edition

Guidelines

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2003

World Health Organization

231

Guidelines on Malaria Treatment

Guidelines

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2010

World Health Organization

232

Policy Guidelines on Feeding of Infants and Young Children in the Context of HIV/AIDS (2001)

Guidelines

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Other

2001

Ministry of Health

233

Battling Water-Borne Disease amongst Children: An Assessment of Policy Option from Uganda

Evidence brief for policy

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Delivery arrangements

2010

Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA)

234

Medicines for Life: Clients and Providers in Uganda

Evidence brief for policy

Essential medicines & supplies

Delivery arrangements

2014

Child Health and Development Centre

235

Financing of Reproductive Health Services in Uganda

Evidence brief for policy

Health financing

Financial arrangements

2012

Ahead for World Bank Advocacy Coalition

236

Eliminating Congenital Syphilis in Uganda

Evidence brief for policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2011

Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation

237

Gender and Health Policy Brief for Uganda

Evidence brief for policy

Others

Governance arrangements

2014

Forum for Women in Democracy

238

Youth Reproductive Health Policy

Evidence brief for policy

Reproductive health

Governance arrangements

2005

HEPS Uganda

239

Global Fund: Making Uganda’s CCM Work Through Full Engagement of Civil Society

Evidence brief for policy

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2008

HEPS Uganda

240

The Industrial Property Bill 2007 – Balancing Inventors Rights with Public Health Interests in Uganda’s IP Legislation

Evidence brief for policy

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2008

HEPS Uganda

241

Making UNSCR 1325, 1820 and the Goma Declaration a Reality for Women and Girls in Uganda

Evidence brief for policy

Maternal and child health

Governance arrangements

2010

HEPS Uganda

242

CSOs Position on National Pharmaceutical Plan

Evidence brief for policy

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2014

HEPS Uganda

243

Improving the Availability and Management of Essential AIDS and TB Medicines and Diagnostics in Uganda

Evidence brief for policy

Essential medicines & supplies

Delivery arrangements

2008

HEPS Uganda

244

A National Framework for Sustainability of Health Knowledge Translation Initiatives in Uganda

Evidence brief for policy

Others

Delivery arrangements

2014

HEPS Uganda

245

Community Involvement in HIV Prevention Research: Successes and Failures

Evidence brief for policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Implementation strategies

2010

HEPS Uganda

246

National Strategy for Girls’ Education in Uganda

Evidence brief for policy

Maternal and child health

Implementation strategies

2014

HEPS Uganda

247

Gaps in the Implementation of Reproductive Health Policies in Uganda

Evidence brief for policy

Reproductive health

Implementation strategies

2012

Isis-WICCE

248

Sustainable Coverage of LLINs in Uganda

Evidence brief for policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Implementation strategies

2014

Malaria Consortium

249

Mental Health Law Reforms in Uganda

Evidence brief for policy

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2014

Mental Health and Poverty Project

250

Integration of Mental Health into Primary Healthcare in Uganda: Success and Challenges

Evidence brief for policy

Curative services

Delivery arrangements

2014

Mental Health and Poverty Project

251

Community Case Management of Malaria

Evidence brief for policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2014

Ministry of Health

252

Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in the Post-2015 Agenda

Evidence brief for policy

Reproductive health

Governance arrangements

2014

Plan International

253

Child Protection in the Post-2015 Agenda

Evidence brief for policy

Others

Governance arrangements

2014

Plan International

254

Advancing the Integration of Palliative Care in the National Health System

Evidence brief for policy

Palliative care services

Governance arrangements

2013

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

255

Policy Brief on Improving Access to Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies for Malaria in the East African Community

Evidence brief for policy

Essential medicines & supplies

Delivery arrangements

2010

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

256

Task Shifting to Optimize the Roles of Health Workers to Improve the Delivery of Maternal and Child Healthcare

Evidence brief for policy

Human resources for health

Delivery arrangements

2010

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

257

Improving Access to Skilled Attendance at Delivery

Evidence brief for policy

Maternal and child health

Delivery arrangements

2012

SURE Project – Makerere University College of Health Sciences

258

From Commitment to Action: The RAPID Application in Uganda

Evidence brief for policy

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2012

Uganda National Academy of Sciences

259

Integrating Nutrition and Agriculture: Use of Extension Workers and Community Models in Uganda

Evidence brief for policy

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Financial arrangements

2011

Uganda National Academy of Sciences

260

Improving Vaccine and Immunization Coverage in Uganda

Evidence brief for policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Delivery arrangements

2014

Uganda National Academy of Sciences

261

Observing our Commitment to Addressing Gender Based Violence and Reproductive Rights in Uganda

Evidence brief for policy

Health education, promotion, environmental health & nutrition

Governance arrangements

2014

Uganda Women's Network

262

What is Needed to Eliminate Mother to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS in Uganda?

Evidence brief for policy

Disease prevention, mitigation & control

Implementation strategies

2014

Uganda's HIV/AIDS Knowledge Management and Communication Capacity (KMCC) initiative

263

Expanding Private Health Insurance Coverage for HIV and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa

Evidence brief for policy

Health financing

Financial arrangements

2013

USAID

264

Tracking Contraceptive Financing – Lessons from Uganda

Evidence brief for policy

Health financing

Financial arrangements

2013

USAID

265

Accreditation of Institutions for Health Professional Education

Evidence brief for policy

Governance, coordination & M&E

Governance arrangements

2013

World Health Organization

We further classified these documents as governance, financial and delivery arrangements, and as implementation strategies within the health systems [15]. The governance arrangements category includes documents on centralisation/decentralisation of health services, registration and accreditation of the services, consumer and stakeholder involvement in service delivery, stewardship of the non-state actors in health financing and delivery, among other topics [15]. The financial arrangements category includes documents on financing systems, funding organisations, remunerating providers, purchasing products and services, and incentives targeted at consumers [15]. The delivery arrangements category covers documents on how care is designed to meet consumer needs, human resources for health, and support systems for the provision of care, plus where care is provided [15]. The implementation strategies category includes documents on consumer-, provider- and organisation-targeted strategies [15]. The third reviewer (EO) arbitrated areas that BM and RB disagreed on.

Step 5: Collating, summarising and reporting results

After charting the information from the evidence documents, we presented the review findings as numerical analyses of the volume of documents, their nature (i.e. type, coverage of national priority areas, the frequency of health system topics) and trends over time in the form of tables and charts. The data were summarised using descriptive statistics, including for the type of the documents included, the national health priority areas/issues covered in the documents, the extent of coverage of the health priority for the different health policy and system domains, and the trends over time in the nature and distribution of the documents.

Results

The website hand-searches resulted in a total of 909 health policy and systems-relevant documents, including 10 duplicates. Of the remaining 899 documents, 265 met the selection criteria and were considered for analysis (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2

Results of the document search process and screening

Volume of the documents and trends over time

Most of the health policy and systems-relevant documents included in our review were rapid response summaries (18%) and guidelines (13%). The least were strategies (4%) and policy dialogue reports (3%) (Table 2). There was a consistent increase in the volume of the policy and system-relevant documents between 2000 and 2011 followed by a decline. The increase was from around six documents per year in 2000 to 49 per year in 2011 that later dropped to 27 in 2014 (Fig. 3).
Fig. 3

Number of policy-relevant documents produced by year

Coverage of the national health priority areas by the documents

In Table 2, the top three national priority areas (clusters) addressed in the documents are governance, coordination, monitoring and evaluation (74, 28%), disease prevention, mitigation and control (63, 24%), and health education, promotion, environmental health and nutrition (41, 16%). The least addressed national health priorities were curative services, health infrastructure, palliative care services, rehabilitation services, each addressed in three documents (1%), and early childhood development (in only one document). The biggest percentage of policies (46%), guidelines (31%), policy dialogue reports (29%) and evidence briefs for policy (18%) addressed the cluster of disease prevention, mitigation and control, while most strategies (90%) and rapid response summaries (17%) covered the health education, promotion, environmental health and nutrition cluster, and plans (36%) addressed the governance, coordination, monitoring and evaluation cluster (Table 2).

Coverage of health systems topics by the documents

Generally, the highest number of documents (n = 101, 38%) addressed the delivery arrangements domain, followed by the governance arrangements (68, 26%), implementation strategies (56, 21%), and lastly the financial arrangements (16, 6%) (Table 3). Notably, the delivery arrangements domain was addressed by most of “other reports” (93%), evidence briefs for policy (33%) and rapid response summaries (25%). Nearly, two-thirds (63%) of guidelines, 49% of policies and 30% of rapid response summaries addressed the governance arrangements domain. A small percentage of evidence briefs for policy (12%), rapid response summaries (17%) and other reports (5%) addressed the financial arrangement domain; this was not at all covered by guidelines, plans, policies, policy dialogue reports and strategies. Most of the plans (96%) covered the implementation strategy; there was no single policy or other report that addressed it. Other documents that were about public or clinical issues included 51% of policies, 29% of policy dialogue reports, 9% of guidelines and 4% of rapid response summaries.

Discussion

In this paper, we conducted a scoping review of policy and systems-relevant documents in Uganda to support the identification and characterisation of policy and systems-relevant documents for the content of an on-line repository. The first step of our framework, which is identification of documents, borrows from the Arksey and O’Malley methodological framework for scoping reviews. The second step involves the development of the tailored index of health policy documents based on the national priority issues, types of documents emerging from the search results and health system topics [15, 24, 25].

A number of key findings emerged. First, the review demonstrates the availability of the policy and system-relevant documents in the country that include policies, guidelines, plans, strategies, rapid response summaries, evidence briefs for policy, and policy dialogue reports. The available documents address several national health priority issues identified in the Second Health Policy and National Development Plan (2015/2016–2019/2020). Further, the review findings show varying coverage of the national health issues and health system topics by the documents, which is an important indication of areas of interest. Finally, it demonstrates that there has, until recently, been a progressive increase in the number of documents produced although the distribution of different document types has not been uniform.

Findings in relation to other studies

Our findings especially, on the availability of the policy and system-relevant documents are supported by literature from previous studies in low- and middle-income countries [26, 27]. We found out that apart from “other reports”, rapid response summaries were by far the most dominant type of documents produced, although most of them were produced in a particular period, from 2008 to 2013. The fact that their production was majorly by research networks with a local presence [18, 19] is suggestive of increased local capacity to produce summaries. This may also reflect a growing interest by policymakers and stakeholders to use the summaries to address urgent policy questions in the country. This was corroborated in a study by Mijumbi, which showed that a rapid response mechanism service in Uganda has been widely used by national policymakers at the Ministry of Health and development partners and stakeholders from NGOs [26]. Although we utilised a multifaceted search strategy, relatively few plans, strategies and policy dialogue reports meeting the specified inclusion criteria were identified. The lack of these documents may indicate their scarcity in the country. This may instead point to the fact that these documents were not readily on governmental and NGOs’ websites: an indication for lack of one-stop shops for knowledge sharing in the country. This is supported by findings from a study by Murphy [27], which demonstrated that information on training and deployment policies for health workers for maternal, newborn and child health in rural Africa was not available on governmental websites; it was instead readily located on the sites of institutions with a greater capacity for knowledge sharing. Generally, there was a noted increase in the number of documents from 6 documents per year in 2000 to 49 per year in 2011, dropping in the following years. The lack of documents in the earlier years may not be surprising because, the older they are the harder it is to find such documents online. However, it could also be due to the delay in posting the documents on the website. The increase in the volume of documents over time may reflect an increase in funding for health policy and systems in the country.

The national health priority areas were not equally tackled by the documents, some were more addressed than others. For example, the clusters of disease prevention, mitigation and control and that of governance, coordination, monitoring and evaluation were each covered by almost a quarter of the documents. The breadth of topics and types of documents available reflects what is considered most important by the government of Uganda or may be what the major funding sources perceive to be the most important health issues in Uganda. Besides funding and politics, the sector decision-making process is guided by a sector-wide approach, the compact and International Health Partnerships Plus frameworks involving all key stakeholders, including donors, private sector, civil society and the Government of Uganda. However, these findings may be an indication of the lack of a clear priority-setting mechanism for health policy and systems and of sufficient funding to address important areas.

The delivery arrangement was the most popular health system domain covered by the documents, followed by governance and implementation strategies. A paucity of documents on the financial arrangements domain and the crosscutting issues was noted. This is similar to findings from other studies in low- and middle-income countries [26, 28]. For example, a review by Rao et al. [28] on health systems research in the time of health system reform in India indicated that service delivery was the health system domain most covered by the publications reviewed in comparison to other domains. The neglect of the finance arrangements domains was also noted in Mijumbi’s study on the feasibility of a rapid response mechanism to meet policymakers’ urgent needs for research evidence about health systems in a low-income country [26]. The lack of documents in some health system domains, such as financial arrangements, may reflect many reasons such as lack of interest in the area by the authorities.

Strengths and limitations

To our knowledge, this is the first scoping review of local policy-relevant documents that address questions about health systems and interventions in the eastern African region; previous papers have focused on developed countries in general [1417]. Our study utilised a rigorous methodological approach for scoping reviews that ensured the validity of the results [21]. We tried to identify all published documents by searching different websites of relevant NGOs and national institutions. The combination of heterogeneous sources of data adds value to the results. However, the review is not exhaustive because we were not able to include hard copies of the documents that were not yet uploaded on the websites. Further, given the wide range of terminology used to describe policy and systems-relevant documents, the study could have missed identifying some documents. We did not consider hard copies due to the limited resource setting. However, we used the website documents as tracers. We recommend future research to consider documents not on websites. Looking at national documents is just one of the inputs in decision-making. International learning can inform local policies. However, our study focused on the Uganda-specific documents as just one of the many inputs.

Implications for policy and research

Our study provides novel insights into the creation of one-stop shops for research evidence and policy-relevant documents. Specifically, it demonstrates the feasibility of identifying the content of the clearinghouse in a low- and middle-income country, provides an explicit mechanism for categorising the content, and shows that it is possible to adapt the index of health policy documents. Our approach provides academic and other research institutions involved in knowledge brokerage in low- and middle-income countries with a framework for identifying and organising the content of the on-line repositories for health policy and system information. To our knowledge, this is the first scoping review of local policy-relevant documents that address questions about health systems and interventions in the African region. Previous research has focused on developed countries in general.

It is anticipated that this framework may add to the ongoing research efforts in high-income countries that have focused on developing one-stop shops for both global research evidence and local policy-relevant documents. Such efforts include a study by Lavis et al. [15] on health system evidence that focused on developing and refining the methods for a ‘one-stop shop’ for synthesised research evidence about health systems. In this study, they developed a taxonomy of health system topics for categorising systematic reviews and systematic review protocols. This study demonstrated that policymakers and stakeholders could easily access and use a wide variety of types of research evidence about health systems to inform decision-making and advocacy. Rosenbaum et al. [14] also studied the user experiences of The Cochrane Library, providing a basis for building and improving on-line resources for evidence-based practices. In another study, Faith et al. [17] developed and tested a search tool for HTA Database Canadian Search interface for supporting the use of health technology assessments by decision-makers.

In particular, our findings can inform re-designing of the Uganda Clearinghouse for Health Policy and Systems. The documents reviewed tackle issues identified by the Second Health Policy and National Development Plan, which feed into the Vision 2040 and subsequently contribute to Sustainable Development Goal 3 (i.e. ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages) [24, 25, 29, 30]. Thus, categorising content of the on-line repository according to the national health priority issues may increase the chances of using the resource by health policy and decision-makers. The study findings can also inform government and funders to support the production of policy and systems documents to address the coverage gaps in the national priority issues and health systems domains. In this study, it was not feasible to hold consultations with consumers and stakeholders, future scoping work should consider this for prioritisation, additional sources of information and perspective.

Conclusion

A one-stop shop for health policy-relevant information may increase the likelihood of using the resource to inform decisions about health systems and interventions if it consists of a wide variety of relevant document types. Thus, the demonstrated availability of health policy and systems documents that address a number of national priority health issues is important for facilitating efforts towards mobilising, building and organising the content of a one-stop shop for Uganda-specific documents. With the resource in place, policymakers, decision-makers and stakeholders will now easily access and use well-packaged policy-relevant documents for decision-making.

Footnotes
1

A policy is a course or principle of action adopted by the government or executive of a state, intended to guide decisions and achieve rational outcome.

 
2

A decision is the most logical and suitable course of action about a particular situation selected by the government or executive of a state to achieve the desirable outcome.

 
3

A policymaker whose action and opinion strongly influences the course of events at an international, national, regional, or local level such as legislators and commissioners at Ministry of Health.

 
4

A stakeholder is a person (or an interest group) with a powerful bearing on the outcome of policymaking process.

 

Declarations

Acknowledgements

We thank the Research Assistants, the Data Entry Clerks and all who played a role in conducting this study. We also acknowledge the support from SURE project staff, EVIPNet Africa REACH-PI, and Office of the principal – Makerere University College of Health Sciences.

Funding

The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) – International Research Chair in Evidence-Informed Health Policies and Systems under Makerere University and McMaster University collaboration, funded this study.

Availability of data and materials

The data supporting the results of this study are included in this paper.

Authors’ contributions

MB led the study conceptualisation and design, data analysis, interpretation of findings, writing, and editing. NS and JL guided the conceptualisation and design of the study and contributed to interpretation of findings, writing, and editing of the manuscript. EO and RB contributed to assessing and screening documents for eligibility, coding documents, writing and editing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Ethics approval and consent to participants

Not applicable.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
College of Health Sciences, Makerere University
(2)
International Health Sciences University
(3)
McMaster Health Forum, Centre for Health Economics and Policy Analysis, Department of Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics, and Department of Political Science, McMaster University
(4)
Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
(5)
Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

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Copyright

© The Author(s). 2017

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