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Table 2 Description of the changes induced by the research results and their methods of dissemination mentioned by the key informants

From: Impact of clinical and health services research projects on decision-making: a qualitative study

Changes induced by research results




Changes in health services and/or clinical practice

Changes in hospital design and management, such as the creation of a type of service or contribution to the design of chronic care services

‘After two years… its home-based hospitalization grew as a real service and an integrated care cross-sectional unit was created within the hospital.’ (researcher; P4)


Changes in staff management

‘A few years later, that enabled this nurse to become a pneumology case manager nurse. In fact, the only case manager nurse we have in the Consortium is the pneumology nurse.’ (decision-maker; project 3)


Possible partial contributions to protocols, guidelines and simplifications of procedures; for chronic bronchitis patients, for the treatment and prophylaxis of infections or sleep studies

‘Yes, indeed, at that time many care protocols were created and in fact with regards to chronic bronchitis patients, the protocols were based at that time on the criteria that we thought was the most adequate in order to prevent as much as possible re-exacerbations.’ (researcher; P1)


Identification of modifiable risk factors

‘Yes, some were identified… one of the main results was that physical activity reduced the risk of hospital admission.’ (researcher; P2)


Contribution to the use of an instrument for the diagnosis of sleep apnea

‘I can’t guarantee that the validation study has been responsible for this dissemination, but I can say that it was an already validated home process, etc., and it therefore provides some safety, a scientific basis.’ (researcher; P3)


Change in clinical habits

‘Yes, it has all generated a culture… We are essentially a clean unit…’ (researcher; P5).

Impact on healthcare costs

In home-based hospitalization

‘The work supported feasibility arguments… it has an economic impact because it reduces costs, it is safe for the patient, achieves the same results, etc. …’ (researcher; P4)


Procedure simplification

‘This study and other studies that we have conducted have proven that the cost of performing one test at the hospital equals the cost of performing at least three others at home…’ (researcher; P3).

Generation of new knowledge

New projects, new studies, new lines

‘… it generated two or three new related projects… at least three projects separate from the PAC COPD were funded: one on infection, one on inflammation and one on physical activity.’ (researcher; P6)

Dissemination of knowledge





Scientific publications

‘Presentations at scientific meetings by the research team (it consisted of a team in which several hospitals participated), presentations at congresses, and publications, of course.’ (researcher; P2)


Direct information to potential users

‘… I think that at the level of clinical sessions … there have been at least three or four sessions that have been important enough to have an impact within the pneumology service, or at least they have had the highest number of patients.’ (researcher; P6)


Meetings managers - research team

‘We spoke with the head of the internal medicine service and with the pneumology unit head, which is where the doctor in charge of the project worked, because, in our hospital, these two specialties basically manage the disease.’ (decision-maker)


Participation and/or collaboration of the decision-maker in the project

‘… because we participated during the time of elaboration, meaning in the meetings prior to starting the project.’ (decision-maker)


Proximity of the decision-maker with the research team

‘I am aware of them because of proximity to the researchers involved, not because of their dissemination.’ (decision-maker)


Scientific societies

‘It has been highly disseminated in the European Society of Pneumology …, it has resonated significantly in the European Society of Pneumology, in the American Society of Pneumology, and in the Spanish Society of Pneumology.’ (researcher; P2)


Clinical Practice Guidelines

‘… that is included in the COPD clinical practice guidelines, and has led to a change in the behaviour of physicians.’ (researcher; P2)



‘For some time we were uploading results onto a website, within the respiratory section, from the centre.’ (researcher; P2)