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Table 3 Intervention studies (Change in costs due to moving from incorrect to correct management)

From: Do clinical guidelines reduce clinician dependent costs?

Reference/Design Country/setting Inclusion criteria/intervention Degree of financial saving LOE
Adam et-al. (2005); Comparative study[11] Tanzania Districts with Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) against those without Cost per child in IMCI district was 44% lower than in district without IMCI. Although drug costs were higher by 61% in IMCI districts 2b
Hogg et-al. (2005); Randomized control trial[24] Ontario Canada Multifaceted intervention to improve preventive care delivered by nurses Savings from a reduction in inappropriate testing were 35% of total health system costs 1b
Ripouteau et-al. (2000); A controlled prospective before and after study[17] France Multifaceted intervention to promote early switch from acetaminophen for prospective pain intravenous to oral Mean cost per patient for analgesia decreased from £14 to £6 after the intervention to a 57% decrease 2a
Boyter et-al. (1995); Before and after study[19] Britain New antibiotic protocols, involving Amoxicillin as a first line agent Mean consumable cost per patient reduced significantly from £14-09 to £10.20 this translates to a 28% reduction 1b
Palmer et-al. (2000); Cluster randomized Control trial[25] Canada Use of a critical pathway designed to manage community-acquired pneumonia more efficiently than conventional therapy The pathway produced cost savings of 16%, 24% and 24% for the three perspectives respectively 1b
  1. LOE: Oxford centre for Evidence-Based Medicine level of evidence (May 2001)[10]