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Table 1 Characteristics and summary of the case studies of research utilization based on the WHO/TRIP framework

From: Utilization of research findings for health policy making and practice: evidence from three case studies in Bangladesh

Case study 1. Scaling up the use of misoprostol for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in Bangladesh
Characteristics of the study Factors that could have contributed to research utilization Activities to promote utilization Utilization of research findings Policy contribution
Study/Authors/years Study design/ population Main findings Research Process (Problem identification) Stakeholder involvement Communication Process Macro-contextual factors    
Md Abdul Quaiyum et al. 2014 [28] Quasi experimental study design The community acceptability of misoprostol tablets for the prevention of PPH reduced volume of blood loss after child birth Literature review Researchers/scientists of icddr,b Dissemination workshops at international, national and community levels Commitment from political parties Seminars and dissemination workshops Scaling up the use of misoprostol, and its inclusion into Essential Drug List (EDL) of Bangladesh Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) and other key agencies committed to integrate misoprostol use into government policies and plans
Women residing in the Abhoynagar sub district of Bangladesh The delivery mat and pad were found to be useful for mothers as tools for assessing the amount of blood loss after delivery and informing care seeking decisions. Conducted phased trial Obstetric Gynecology Society of Bangladesh (OGSB)    Published in peer reviewed journals   Misoprostol was included in the program of activities for community health workers and family welfare agents
    Government Departments - DGHS, Drug Administration    Provided technical assistance   
    NGOs-BRAC, Pathfinder International, Engender Health, UN Agencies      
    Researcher’s efforts to promote utilization of study findings  
    “We took a temporary permission from the Drug Administration of Bangladesh to conduct the research and subsequently, after we found that it is effective and useful for prevention of PPH and in collaboration with the drug companies and the pharmaceutical licensure of Bangladesh we requested them to extend the registration of the use of misoprostol for the prevention of PPH and we informed them that we will provide all the papers and any technical assistance they need and they did it and now misoprostol is registered in Bangladesh for use of in the prevention of PPH and that’s happened because of our research findings” (KII001)  
Case study 2. Enactment of the Bangladesh Domestic Relations Bill 2010
Characteristics of the study Factors that could have contributed to research utilization Activities to promote utilization Utilization of research findings Policy contribution
Study/Authors/years Study design/ population Main findings Research Process (Problem identification) Stakeholder involvement Communication Process Macro-contextual factors    
Asling-Monemi K, Tabassum Naved R, Perrsson LA, 2008 [31] Secondary analysis of longitudinal data from rural Bangladesh of 2691 live-born children in relation to their mother's experience of physical, sexual and emotional partner violence and level of controlling behaviour in marriage. Under five-mortality was 88 per 1000 in this cohort. Conducted an exploratory study Networks of women activists: Dissemination seminars, Workshops Political System is not gender sensitive Published in peer reviewed journals Advocacy Research provided essential information to policy makers and human rights groups and reinforced the need for Bangladesh to introduce legislation to address domestic violence
   Severe physical violence and controlling behaviour in marriage were associated with higher under-five mortality among daughters of educated mothers in rural Bangladesh, indicating gender-based consequences of partner violence for child mortality.   Naripako, Citizen’s Initiative against Domestic Violence, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs Published papers, Printed reports   Provided technical assistance Enactment of Bangladesh DRB 2010 The parliament of Bangladesh passed the Domestic Violence (Protection and Prevention) Act 2010
        Joined advocacy network negotiated and lobbied   
        Engaged the media   
        Held one-on-one meetings   
        Produced wind banners   
    Researcher’s efforts to promote utilization of study findings  
    “So what I was able to do was to sort of guide them in that, fine tuning the focus, and then provide input in defining different forms of violence which was not possible for them, because for the bill you have to get them pinned down. So that was the contribution from icddr,b based on our research”. (KII009)  
Case study 3. Provision of outreach services to injecting drug users
Characteristics of the study Factors that could have contributed to research utilization Activities to promote utilization Utilization of research findings Policy contribution
Study/Authors/years Study design/ population Main findings Research Process (Problem identification) Stakeholder involvement Communication Process Macro-contextual factors    
Tasnim Azim, Najmul Hussein and Robert Kelly [30] Cohort study design HIV prevalence still low in Bangladesh Analysis of surveillance data NGOs who were working with the drug users- CARE Bangladesh Regular small meetings with the NGO Harassment & violence against IDUs, Discrimination, Criminalization of IDUs Held one on one meetings Awareness creation among government officials, Provision of more services by NGOs Strong government and NGO support for both serological and behavioral surveillance as demonstrated through the use of data to build national programmes
  Approximately 500 injecting Drug Users (IDUs) under CARE’s Needle/Syringe Exchange Programme (NEP) Migration is a major source of new infections    Dissemination seminars   Published in peer reviewed journals Advocacy for provision of oral substitution therapy  
   Deeply held cultural norms regarding acceptable behaviour, reluctance to use condoms and gender issues are major constrain to reducing the risk of an epidemic    Published in journals   Provided technical assistance   
   Interventions that are both effective and culturally acceptable to address the needs of the migrants are still absent.    Presentations at international and regional seminars.     
    Researcher’s efforts to promote utilization of study findings  
    “As a result of this, we could also advocate for providing oral substitution therapy. .... the data from this study gave us the ammunition to go to the department of NARCOTICS Control that we definitely need to bring in oral drugs so that these people can stop injecting.” (KII008)