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Table 2 Organisational factors of research use in policy-making identified in the included studies

From: Organisational factors that facilitate research use in public health policy-making: a scoping review

Thematic overview of the organisational factors/Policy level and population studied by number of studiesLocalState/regionalNational/federalInternationalCivil servantsPoliticiansService managers and clinical/field staffResearchersOther external actors
INDIVIDUAL FACTORS
 External knowledge exchange linkages
 1. Brokering knowledge from different sectors and stakeholder groups (2 empirical studies [56, 60])122 2  11
 2. Informal, personal and trusting relationship with researchers (4 reviews [16, 29, 32, 53], 3 empirical studies [56, 60, 65])576 8 234
 3. Time spent on networking activities and acquiring research knowledge (1 review [48], 1 empirical study [41])2 1 2    
 Gender and age
 4. Being female (2 empirical studies [41, 66])111 2    
 5. Being younger or recent graduate (2 reviews [29, 32])222 2 211
 6. Seniority and having decision-making authority (1 review [48], 2 empirical studies [2, 27])211 3    
 Individual values, interests and beliefs
 7. Having a left-leaning political orientation (1 review [29])111 1 111
 8. Level of association and perceived relevance, credibility and objectivity of external research providers (4 reviews [12, 29, 32, 49], 4 empirical studies [8, 58, 60, 67])597292245
 9. Motivation, intention and expectations towards using research, including its perceived usefulness (7 reviews [12,13,14, 17, 29, 32, 48], 13 empirical studies [8, 9, 27, 30, 33, 41, 43, 47, 54, 56, 67,68,69])1310131192436
 10. Ownership of research results (1 review [51])111 1 11 
 11. Positive experiences with research translation and research use (1 review [29], 2 empirical studies [60, 69])234 4 122
 Position, status and role in the organisation
 12. Being a knowledge broker, champion or research gatekeeper (3 reviews [13, 14, 51], 6 empirical studies [10, 55, 58, 61, 70, 71])545 9 452
 13. Being an influential member of the organisation in promoting research (5 reviews [12,13,14, 49, 51], 2 empirical studies [10, 55])556262243
 14. Having a type of specialisation (1 review [48])1   1    
 15. Having decision-making authority (4 reviews [12, 13, 32, 48], 5 empirical studies [2, 41, 43, 66, 72])8581111123
 Research awareness and integration skills
 16. Competencies and the ability to champion research use in a political setting (3 reviews [16, 17, 49], 4 empirical studies [45, 70, 73, 74])444171213
 17. Availability of internal experts with research knowledge in a particular policy area (3 reviews [14, 17, 32], 2 empirical studies [27, 73])444 5 3 1
 18. Having a high educational level (1 review [48], 6 empirical studies [2, 8, 9, 41, 66, 72])344 7   1
 19. Having a low educational level (1 empirical study [75])1   1    
 20. Having research experience and skills (4 reviews [16, 17, 29, 52], 7 empirical studies [33, 41, 45, 66, 67, 75, 76])775 11 324
 21. Skills in seeking, appraising and interpreting systematic reviews and adapting to contextual needs (5 reviews [14, 16, 17, 32, 53], 9 empirical studies [38, 39, 42, 45, 47, 54, 56, 68, 73])849 131315
MANAGEMENT OF RESEARCH INTEGRATION
 Performance management
 22. Availability and organisation of internal staff, which coordinate and respond to specific demands for research to inform a policy (1 review [53], 8 empirical studies [27, 30, 61, 64, 67, 74, 76, 77])765 12 325
 23. Continuity and stability of employment for high level leadership and staff (2 reviews [29, 48], 2 empirical studies [30, 45])411 4 111
 24. Development of shared positions or exchange programmes with university (1 review [53], 4 empirical studies [60, 64, 65, 69])245 6  23
 25. Internal capacity-building (9 reviews [11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 32, 51,52,53], 17 empirical studies [27, 30, 33, 36, 38, 42, 45, 46, 54, 56, 59, 60, 64, 67, 69, 71, 73])181216126 668
 26. Research integration skills, which form an essential part of recruitment policy and the performance management system (2 reviews [16, 53], 6 empirical studies [30, 33, 42, 45, 61, 72])532 7 1 2
 Strategic commitment towards research use
 27. Clear strategic vision for, and the systematic incorporation of, research use within existing systems and practises (3 reviews [13, 14, 51], 7 empirical studies [10, 30, 44,45,46, 64, 77])745 10 232
 28. Efforts to create an organisational culture favouring research use (6 reviews [11,12,13,14, 17, 51], 3 empirical studies [30, 33, 73])867291342
 29. Provision of sufficient time and resources to acquire research, make decisions and engage with research activities (7 reviews [12,13,14, 17, 29, 32, 51], 10 empirical studies [8, 30, 33, 36, 41, 42, 45, 56, 59, 67])148111161656
 30. Support by senior managers (3 reviews [14, 29, 51], 8 empirical studies [10, 36, 38, 42, 45, 58, 64, 75])864 11 332
ORGANISATIONAL SYSTEM AND INFRASTRUCTURE FOR RESEARCH USE
 Access to research
 31. Access to online or in-house databases and repositories of research (5 reviews [12, 17, 29, 32, 53], 7 empirical studies [8, 10, 27, 36, 46, 60, 64])7961121324
 32. Personal access to a researcher, research consultant or internal expert (4 reviews [29, 48, 53], 3 empirical studies [36, 60, 73])435 7 212
 33. Provision of library services or support by an information specialist (3 reviews [29, 32, 53], 4 empirical studies [10, 71, 73])334 6 212
 34. Availability of tailored, disseminated research findings to policy-makers (4 reviews [12, 17, 29, 53], 4 empirical studies [43, 64, 70, 77])457181347
 35. Technical support to access research findings (1 empirical study [39])1 1 11 11
 Inter-organisational communication and collaboration
 36. External partnerships and communication channels (5 reviews [12, 29, 48, 52, 53], 9 empirical studies [39, 44, 56, 58,59,60, 76,77,78])981511423810
 37. Government and academia collaborative research (1 review [53], 5 empirical studies [56, 58, 60, 74, 77])245 7  34
 Intra-organisational communication, learning networks and collaboration teams
 38. Clear messages and good internal networks among leaders across departments (1 review [14], 2 empirical studies [45, 73])212 3 1  
 39. Intra-organisational communication and learning networks (3 reviews [14, 48, 52], 7 empirical studies [8, 30, 44, 59, 70, 73, 74])746 10 434
 40. Multidisciplinary and multiagency teams (3 review [14, 50, 52], 1 empirical study [70])334 4 433
 Knowledge management systems and methods for internal research generation
 41. Availability of a comprehensive knowledge management system for research use (1 review [53], 1 empirical study [30])1 1 2   1
 42. Data collection systems for research, monitoring and evaluation (2 review [14, 52], 2 empirical studies [10, 59, 79])343 5 322
 43. Methods for collecting and generating research to inform policy (1 review [16], 1 empirical study [76]) 1  1    
INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES AND RULES FOR POLICY-MAKING
 Political environment
 44. Establishing platforms for engaging all stakeholders across sectors in policy discussions and where research evidence is discussed (2 reviews [52, 53], 2 empirical studies [59, 60])224 4 223
 45. Funding and commissioning of research (5 reviews [14, 16, 29, 32, 53], 9 empirical studies [30, 58,59,60,61, 64, 69, 73, 76])577 13 433
 46. Open and transparent policy-making process that creates opportunities for public input (1 review [48], 4 empirical studies [46, 59, 65, 76])422 5 122
 47. Political support and procedures for using research for policy-making (4 reviews [12, 16, 29, 53])233141123
 Implicit rules and preferences on how to make policy
 48. High value placed on questioning, experimentation and risk taking as part of the organisation’s culture (1 review [14], 3 empirical studies [10, 30, 74])331 4 1  
 49. High value placed on rationality, professionalism, speciality, measurement, evaluation and quality improvement as part of the organisation’s culture (1 review [14], 6 empirical studies [10, 45, 60, 61, 70, 76])343 7 311
 50. Shared importance and high value of research in policy-making as part of the organisation’s culture (5 reviews [13, 17, 32, 48, 51], 7 empirical studies [8, 9, 27, 58, 64, 73, 76])686 11 331
ORGANISATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
 Function of the organisation
 51. Being a healthcare organisation (1 empirical study [33])11  1    
 52. Being a statutory body that has to stand up to legal scrutiny (1 empirical study [61])1   1 1  
 53. Being an organisation with high functional differentiation (number of divisions or departments within the organisation) (1 empirical study [47])  1 1    
 54. Being an organisation whose primary task focuses on policy and programme development (1 review [48])1   1    
 Size and complexity of the organisation
 55. Being a medium- or large-sized organisation and unit (1 review [48], 3 empirical studies [9, 33, 41])322 4    
 56. Being an organisation that provides a large number of distinct services (1 review [48])1   1    
 Policy area
 57. Working in a disease prevention policy area (1 empirical study [57])111 1 1 1
 58. Working in a policy area where political conflicts are low (1 empirical study [57])111 1 1 1
 59. Working in a policy area with a pathogenic focus (1 empirical study [57])111 1 1 1
 60. Working in a technical policy area (1 empirical study [59])1 1 1 111
 61. Working in an education or social policy area (2 empirical studies [9, 66]) 21 2    
 Level of policy-making
 62. Being a national level organisation (1 empirical study [57])111 1 1 1
 63. Being a provincial level organisation (1 empirical study [9]) 11 1    
 Location
64. Being in an urban area (1 review [48])1   1