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Table 2 Users’ knowledge needs, types of information used, and sources for obtaining informationa

From: Stakeholders’ experiences with the evidence aid website to support ‘real-time’ use of research evidence to inform decision-making in crisis zones: a user testing study

CategoriesaSenior decision-makerField managerHealthcare providerAdvisorAnalyst/researcher
Knowledge needs
 1. Policy development (e.g., health-system strengthening, health-advocacy approach, etc.)
 2. Operational logistical management (e.g., military and political context, shelter, security, hygiene, mobile clinic set ups, human resources issues, cross-border health supplies management, etc.) 
 3. Clinical management of patients in a crisis situation (e.g., case management, etc.) 
 4. Community-level program development (e.g., behavior change support, etc.)    
 5. Implementation strategies for any of the above (i.e., policy development, operational logistical management, clinical management, and community level program development)    
Types of information usedb
 • Data:
  1. country specific registries and surveillance data    
 • Research evidence:
  1. systematic reviews and meta-analyses
  2. single context-specific case studies
  3. intervention studies (e.g., clinical trials) 
  4. surveys 
  5. observational studies   
  6. conceptual papers (e.g., theoretical papers)   
 • Guidance:
  1. internal guidance documents  
  2. global guidelines (e.g., WHO)  
 • Expert opinion:
  1. expert opinions from the field 
 • Stakeholder insights:
  1. stakeholder tacit knowledge or ordinary knowledge   
  2. stakeholder opinions   
 • Undefined combinations of the above:
  1. internal organizational field assessment information 
  2. lessons learned discussion papers    
Sources for obtaining information
 • Databases:
  1. one-stop shops:
   1. ReliefWeb: contains many different types of information but predominantly news and not research evidence
   2. Health Systems Evidence: contains systematic reviews on a given topic related to health-system arrangements or implementation strategies    
   3. Zika communication Network (ZCN): contains evidence-based toolkits and guidance related to Zika virus    
  2. organizational databases that provide only that organization reports (e.g., ACAPS, ALNAPc, Chatham house library, Cochrane) 
  3. organizational databases that provide access to other information (e.g., MEDBOX, WHO: HINARI)
  4. Google (e.g., google scholar, general google search) 
  5. indexed bibliographic databases accessed through University library subscriptions (e.g., Science Direct, Scopus, Up-to-date) 
  6. indexed bibliographic databases accessed through other mechanisms (e.g., PubMed) 
  7. organizational internal databases 
  8. media websites (e.g., print media, broadcast media)    
 • Reports:
  1. reports by UN agencies (e.g., IOM, OCHA, UNHCR, UNICEF, WHO)
  2. internal reports (e.g., ICRC, MSF, ODI, Save the Children,)
  3. reports by US agencies (e.g., CDC, CIA fact sheets, USAID)  
  4. field staff reports   
  5. reports by charitable organizations (e.g., Bill & Melinda Gates, Oxfam)    
  6. reports by UK agencies (e.g., Rebuild consortium)    
 • Correspondence and social networks:
  1. Email subscriptions (e.g., Disaster management information, Global Health Network, William Brighter Institute)  
  2. Social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, ResearchGate, Twitter)   
  3. memos and correspondence distributed across the whole organization    
  4. direct correspondence with senior-decision makers    
  5. direct correspondence with review article authors    
  1. Bolded checkmarks indicate most cited by respondents. Multiple bolded checkmarks for the same category indicates equal frequency of citation by respondents
  2. aSub-categories are listed from the most cited to the least cited
  3. bItalicized bullet points are within Evidence Aid scope (i.e., able/appropriate for EA to do given mission of website: “to alleviate suffering and save lives by providing the best available evidence on the effectiveness of humanitarian action and enabling its use”
  4. cIn addition to carrying out original research, ALNAP hosts a library of evaluations of humanitarian action from other sources