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Table 2 Key considerations when optimising public health interventions

From: Optimisation: defining and exploring a concept to enhance the impact of public health initiatives

Major themeSub-themes
Theme 1: Parameters for optimisation such as pre-conditions for optimisation and factors considered following a decision to optimise (when and on what outcome to optimise)• Pre-conditions for optimisation:
1) Good quality outcome data and the resources to analyse/evaluate programme outcomes are available
2) Existing initiatives are not sufficiently effective and meaningful public health impacts are anticipated from optimisation
3) Organisational support and leadership for activities such as end-user engagement is available
• Parameters considered following a decision to optimise (when and on what outcome to optimise):
1) Optimisation processes may occur across the public health translation continuum (intervention development through implementation at scale)
2) Optimisation should seek to improve impact on outcomes defined and valued by stakeholders (or end-users)
3) The impacts of optimisation are considered relative to the available resources
Theme 2. How to optimise• The underlying initiative’s logic or causal model needs to be understood
• Factorial designs or analogue methods may be used to understand the initiative’s mechanisms
Theme 3. Identifying when optimisation has been achieved• Stakeholder views, potential for additional worthwhile impacts and balancing multiple outcomes need to be considered