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Table 3 Stakeholder engagement in the different phases of the research process based on data from 18 reviews

From: A review of reviews on principles, strategies, outcomes and impacts of research partnerships approaches: a first step in synthesising the research partnership literature

First author Planning phase Conducting phase Dissemination phase Number of included studies
(denominator)
Lack of reportinga
Identifying research questions Developing study protocol Data collection Data analysis and/or interpretation Dissemination of research findings
Brear [59] 62% 45% 76% 70% 32% 66 yes
Camden [1] 53% N.R. 74% 58% 58% 19 yes
Concannan [61] 34% 44% 36% N.R. 9% 95 yes
Dawson [84] 2% 71% 44% 27% 24% 41 yes
De Las Nueces [62] 63% 74% 63% 58% 47% 19 yes
DiLorito [86] 15% 31% 69% 54% N.R. 13 no
Forsythe [34] 54% 43% 17% N.R. 31% 35 yes
Frankena [65] 42% 65% N.R. 38% 58% 26 yes
Gagliardi [66] 77% 77% 15% 38% 54% 13 yes
Jacquez [88] 77% 84% 84% 54% 52% 56 no
Ragavan [89] 60% N.R. N.R. 50% N.R. 20 yes
Salimi [47] 38% 38% 25% 25% 25% 8 no
Shen [73] 40% 90% 50% 60% 50% 10 yes
Shippee [100] 77% 14% 3% 6% 6% 202 yes
Snijder [49] 32% 42% 55% N.R. N.R. 31 yes
Tricco [76] 40% 49% 52% 71% 44% 73 yes
Vaughn [54] N.R. 80% 76% 75% N.R. 83 yes
Vishwanathan [92] 47% 47% 83% 65% 68% 60 yes
Total 423/787, ~54% 393/831, ~47% 374/824, ~45% 299/709, ~42% 214/723, ~30% 870 15/18, 83% yes
  1. Notes: The selected reviews (18 out of 86 reviews) were included in this sub-analyses if the review included information on the engagement of stakeholders in at least two different research phases. Full references of the reviews are included in the supplementary file. The percentages in the table indicate the percentage of included studies that reported on the engagement of stakeholders in that specific phase of the research project. The denominator is different for each review as they represent the number of included studies in the concerning review. As we did not check for overlap in the primary studies included in this sub-set of reviews, the total percentages should be interpreted with caution. The total percentages are, therefore, shown as approximates (~). The table on OSF includes details on the analysis
  2. N.R. Not reported
  3. aYes indicates that the authors of the review mentioned that there was lack of reporting on how and/or when stakeholders were engaged in the different phases of the research process. No indicates that the authors did not include a statement related to reporting on how and/or when stakeholders are engaged in the different phases of the research process