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Table 2 Research methods

From: Cross-cutting lessons from the Decision-Maker Led Implementation Research initiative

Country Project title Primary type Study design Data collection methods Implementation outcomes
Chad More responsive immunization services through tailoring for hard-to-reach populations in Chad Interventional Mixed methods Focus group discussions; key informant interviews; secondary data; survey Feasibility; sustainability; appropriateness; acceptability; adoption
Ethiopia How can the use of data within the immunization programme be increased in order to improve data quality and ensure greater accountability? Exploratory Mixed methods Key informant interviews; document review Sustainability; adoption
Ethiopia Lack of functional linkages and feedback mechanisms among different health facilities along with mobility of caregivers affect follow-up visits in utilizing the routine immunization services Exploratory Cohort Secondary data; in-depth interviews; key informant interviews; focus group discussions Coverage
India Negative social media messages on vaccines: how can the resultant trust deficit between caregivers and health workers be overcome? A qualitative inquiry in Malappuram district of Kerala State in India Exploratory Qualitative In-depth interviews; focus group discussions; document review Coverage; appropriateness; acceptability
Nigeria Increasing the utilization of immunization in Ogun State of Nigeria using participatory evaluation and action research Interventional Participatory action research Survey; secondary data; in-depth interviews; focus group discussions Coverage; acceptability; feasibility
Nigeria Potential role of civil society organization engagement for increasing the demand for and uptake of immunization services in Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State of Nigeria Exploratory Mixed methods Secondary data; survey; focus group discussions; in-depth interviews; key informant interviews Coverage
Nigeria Use of social actors to address contextual barriers for utilization of immunization services among caregivers of under-five children in urban slums of Yobe State, Nigeria in the context of the Boko Haram insurgency Exploratory Mixed methods Key informant interviews; survey; focus group discussions Coverage; adoption
Pakistan Improving vaccine uptake in urban slums of Karachi, Pakistan—implementation research to explore and address supply- and demand-side barriers to routine immunization Exploratory Mixed methods Survey; focus group discussions; in-depth interviews Adoption; coverage
Uganda Process evaluation of community health facility-based microplan development and implementation in two districts in Uganda Exploratory Mixed methods Observation; document review; key informant interviews; focus group discussions Fidelity; adoption; acceptability
Uganda Evaluating the role of leadership in transitioning vertical into integrated and sustainable district health programmes—a case study of immunization in Luuka district, Uganda Exploratory Mixed methods Document review; key informant interviews; focus group discussions; observation Acceptability; sustainability
Vietnam Governance of the immunization programme for children 0–23 months in Vietnam Exploratory Mixed methods Document review; in-depth interviews; focus group discussions; survey Sustainability; coverage; acceptability