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Table 1 Data reporting inconsistencies

From: Challenges encountered in comparing international policy responses to COVID-19 and their effects

Data type Inconsistencies in data reporting
COVID-19 testing [15] Number of people tested vs number of tests
Inclusion criteria for test results vs subset of test type
Different types of tests used (viral testing: RT-PCR or antigen tests for current infection vs antibody tests for previous infection)
Test result submission frequency/reporting times (weekly, daily, etc.)
COVID-19 cases Different inclusion criteria for total cases of COVID-19—some sources include only confirmed cases, whereas some sources include probable and confirmed cases in their data
COVID-19 deaths [27] Not all deaths outside of hospitals accounted for
Actual death toll likely higher than number of confirmed deaths
COVID-19 reporting standards and timing Changing reporting requirements [29, 30]
Varying reporting frequencies [8, 28]
Delays in reporting [28]