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Table 6 Log-linear trend regression of fiscal space indicators (independent variable: time)

From: Exploring the possible sources of fiscal space for health in India: insights from political regimes

Dependent variables Mean of the base category Differential mean parameters
\({\beta }_{1}\) = NDA1 \({\beta }_{2}\) = UPA1 \({\beta }_{3}\) = UPA2 \({\beta }_{3}\) = NDA2 R-squared
Real GDP 15.30***
(−0.043)
0.358***
(−0.064)
0.678***
(−0.064)
1.055***
(−0.058)
0.948
Central tax revenue 11.85***
(−0.089)
0.870***
(−0.133)
1.510***
(−0.133)
2.107***
(−0.122)
0.944
Central nontax revenue 11***
(−0.14)
0.2
(−0.207
1***
(−0.207)
1.286***
(−0.191)
0.758
State tax revenue 11.67***
(−0.098)
0.747***
(−0.145)
1.522***
(−0.145)
2.222***
(−0.134)
0.941
State nontax revenue 10.34***
(−0.085)
0.686***
(−0.127)
1.216***
(−0.127)
1.819***
(−0.117)
0.932
Grants from the centre 10.52***
(−0.116)
0.883***
(−0.173)
1.570***
(−0.173)
2.481***
(−0.159)
0.932
Share in central tax 10.84***
(−0.109)
0.829***
(−0.161
1.565***
(−0.161)
2.461***
(−0.148)
0.94
Developmental expenditure 12.67***
(−0.096)
0.666***
(−0.142)
1.478***
(−0.142)
2.144***
(−0.131)
0.94
Non-developmental expenditure 12.58***
(−0.082)
0.566***
(−0.123)
1.206***
(−0.123)
1.856***
(−0.113)
0.94
Public health expenditure 9.921***
(−0.086)
0.442***
(−0.128)
1.140***
(−0.128)
2.084***
(−0.118)
0.949
Subsidies 10.35***
(−0.14)
0.730***
(−0.208)
1.874***
(−0.208)
2.194***
(−0.191)
0.894
Defence expenditure 10.83***
(−0.063)
0.559***
(−0.094)
1.205***
(−0.094)
1.680***
(−0.0863)
0.957
Administrative services 10.12***
(−0.087)
0.460***
(−0.13)
1.230***
(−0.13)
1.910***
(−0.119)
0.939
Pension services 10.28***
(−0.106)
0.633***
(−0.157)
1.476***
(−0.157)
2.261***
(−0.144)
0.936
Interest payments 11.53***
(−0.078)
0.408***
(−0.116)
0.999***
(−0.116)
1.645***
(−0.106)
0.934
Gross fiscal deficit 12.23***
(−0.088)
0.235*
(−0.131)
1.154***
(−0.131)
1.677***
(−0.12)
0.928
External debt 12.15***
(−0.058)
0.108
(−0.086)
0.490***
(−0.086)
0.915***
(−0.079)
0.894
Domestic debt 14.24***
(−0.095)
0.690***
(−0.142)
1.292***
(−0.142)
2.012***
(−0.131)
0.931
  1. All variables are real constant prices at base 2011–2012. Standard errors are in parentheses
  2. Source Authors’ estimation
  3. * and *** denote the significance level at 10% and 1%, respectively. The actual mean impact of UPA1, UPA2 and NDA2 can be obtained by adding a differential mean of estimated coefficients (\({\beta }_{2}\), \({\beta }_{3}{\beta }_{4}\)) with the mean coefficient (\({\beta }_{1}\)) of the base category NDA1