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Table 7 Fiscal policy intervention and health programme initiatives across political regimes

From: Exploring the possible sources of fiscal space for health in India: insights from political regimes

Budget year Finance minister Ruling party Fiscal space commitment Health prioritization
1998–1999 Mr Yashwant Sinha NDA Decentralization and expenditure restructuring Plan allocation for the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) increased but was not prioritized
1999–2000 Mr Yashwant Sinha NDA Expenditure management The National Human Development Initiative (NHDI)
2000–2001 Mr Yashwant Sinha NDA Introduced a single-rate central value-added tax (CENVAT), and medical items were exempted National population policy and recognizing Indian systems of medicine
2001–2002 Mr Yashwant Sinha NDA Fiscal consolidation measures to reduce the fiscal deficit Recognized the need for investment in the social sector
2002–03 Mr Yashwant Sinha NDA Introduced Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act (FRBM) bill for fiscal consolidation Increase allocation in the Indian system of medicine
2003–2004 Mr Jaswant Singh NDA Fiscal consolidation and debt management Introduced the community-based Universal Health Insurance Scheme
2004–2005 Mr P. Chidambaram UPA Special economic packages were announced for poor states to improve their fiscal position Group health insurance schemes under the national common minimum programme
2005–2006 Mr P. Chidambaram UPA Implemented 12th Finance Commission recommendations on tax sharing and grants to states Launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) programme
2006–2007 Mr P. Chidambaram UPA Modernization of tax administration Strengthening the NRHM at the block level
2007–2008 Mr P. Chidambaram UPA Introduced national-level goods and services tax (GST) 11th 5-year target to increase health expenditure to 2–3% of GDP
2008–2009 Mr P. Chidambaram UPA Sustained growth rate and high fiscal revenue collection Introduced the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) insurance scheme and the National Programme for Health Care of the Elderly
2009–2010 Mr Pranab Mukherjee UPA Increase tax effort through administrative measures Introduced the Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana (AABY)
2010–2011 Mr Pranab Mukherjee UPA Consolidating growth and tax reforms through GST Prepared district health profiles of all districts through the Inclusive Development programme
2011–2012 Mr Pranab Mukherjee UPA High growth and many social welfare schemes introduced RSBY scheme extended to Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) beneficiaries
2012–2013 Mr Pranab Mukherjee UPA Implement the Medium-term Expenditure Framework Launched Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY)
2013–2014 Mr P. Chidambaram UPA Emphasis on creating fiscal space by reducing the fiscal deficit, current account deficit National Health Mission introduced by adding National Urban Health Mission
2014–2015 Mr Arun Jaitley NDA Minimum government and maximum governance approach for expenditure management Health for All initiatives; Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
2015–2016 Mr Arun Jaitley NDA Good governance initiatives Improving the quality of life and public health through
Swachh Bharat initiatives
2016–2017 Mr Arun Jaitley NDA Governance and fiscal discipline; simplification and rationalization of taxation Niramaya health insurance scheme and PMJAY health insurance scheme launched
2017–2018 Mr Arun Jaitley NDA Measures for stimulating growth; transparency in electoral funding and GST implementation Sabka Saath Sabka Vikas empower rural women with health and nutrition, employment
2018–2019 Mr Arun Jaitley NDA Introduced health and education cess National Health Protection Scheme
2019–2020 Mrs Nirmala Sitharaman NDA Measures to widen and deepen the tax base Health society through Ayushman Bharat initiatives
2020–2021 Mrs Nirmala Sitharaman NDA Digital governance A holistic vision of healthcare for wellness, water and sanitation
2021–2022 Mrs Nirmala Sitharaman NDA Atma Nirbhar packages for structural reform Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana (PMJAY) during lockdown due to COVID-19
  1. Source Authors’ estimation from budget documents, Ministry of Finance [13], Government of India