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Table 4 Data sources and analysis used to assess each of the four strategies

From: Scaling up tobacco cessation within TB programmes: findings from a multi-country, mixed-methods implementation study

Strategy Data source Data analysed
Strategy 1: Simple and adaptable intervention Routine facility data from 59 health facility learning sites in Pakistan, 18 in Nepal and 15 in Bangladesh Proportion of drug-sensitive TB patients asked and advised about tobacco
Interviews with TB health workers, managers, policy-makers (Bangladesh n = 12; Nepal n = 13; Pakistan n = 19) Interview transcripts coded according to CFIR constructs and aligned to ExpandNet steps
Researcher observations in 10 facilities in Pakistan, 18 in Nepal, 15 in Bangladesh Facility observation reports to understand extent and nature of implementation
Strategy 2: Integration of cessation within routine training Pre- and post-training questionnaires of TB health workers (169) Significant changes in confidence to offer cessation support between pre- and post-training questionnaires
Training observation reports Number of trainers trained
Any subsequent training provided to TB health workers in the learning sites or beyond
Strategy 3: Including tobacco use in recording, monitoring and supervision Routine facility data from 59 health facility learning sites and observation of 10 in Pakistan. Routine data and observations from 18 facilities in Nepal and 15 in Bangladesh Proportion of tobacco status, and advised columns completed appropriately
Interviews with TB health workers, managers, policy-makers (Bangladesh n = 12; Nepal n = 13; Pakistan n = 19) Interview transcripts coded according to CFIR constructs and aligned to ExpandNet steps
Strategy 4: Embedding research within the TB programmes Cost data: salaries, fees, time taken in intervention activities, printing and disseminating materials; number of intervention sessions delivered Activity-based cost analysis
Interviews with TB health workers, managers and policy-makers (Bangladesh n = 12; Nepal n = 13; Pakistan n = 19) Interview transcripts coded according to CFIR constructs and aligned to ExpandNet steps
Reflections of the research team Research team reflections aligned to ExpandNet steps